miércoles, 21 de febrero de 2018

Anestesia regional para cirugía de tórax y brazos / Regional anesthesia for thoracic surgery and upper extremities

Febrero 21, 2018. No. 3001
Analgesia epidural torácica para procedimientos oncológicos de mama: una mejor alternativa a la anestesia general
Thoracic epidural analgesia for breast oncological procedures: A better alternative to general anesthesia
Ravi PR, Jaiswal P.
J Mar Med Soc 2017;19:91-5
Abstract
Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcomes of the incidence of nausea/vomiting and other complications along with the time taken for discharged in patients undergoing Thoracic Epidural Analgesia (TEA) and General Anaesthesia (GA) for breast oncological surgeries. Background: GA with or without TEA or other postoperative pain-relieving strategies remains the traditional anesthetic technique used for breast oncological procedures. We initiated the use of high segmental TEA for patients undergoing these procedures in our hospital. Methods: Eighty patients undergoing breast oncological procedures performed by one surgical team were randomly allocated into two groups receiving TEA and GA. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical parameters, paired t-test and Student's t-test was used for continuous measurements. Results: In comparison with GA, TEA was associated with lesser incidence of complications of nausea/vomiting. In lumpectomy with axillary node dissection, 1 out of 18 patients (5.55%) in the TEA group had nausea/vomiting, while 11 out of 19 (57.8%) of the GA group had similar symptoms (P < 0.001). The discharge rate for the thoracic epidural group was 12 out of 18 by day 3 (66.6%) while all patients in the GA group required more than 3 days of hospitalization (P< 0.001). Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a safe technique and its use in breast oncological procedures could improve patients' recovery and facilitate their early discharge to home.
Keywords: Bupivacaine, general anesthesia, postoperative nausea and vomiting, regional anesthesia, ropivacaine
El bloqueo retrolaminar guiado por ultrasonido: distribución de inyecciones dependiente del volumen.
The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block: volume-dependent injectate distribution.
J Pain Res. 2018 Feb 7;11:293-299. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S153660. eCollection 2018.
Abstract
PURPOSE: The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block is one of the newer and simpler alternatives to the traditional, often technically challenging, paravertebral (PV) block. Its feasibility, safety, and efficacy have already been clinically demonstrated in patients with multiple rib fractures using higher volumes of local anesthetic, when compared with the traditional approach. The primary aim of this observational anatomical study was to assess the spread of local anesthetic from the retrolaminar injection point to the PV space and its volume dependence. Second, we assessed the incidence of epidural and contralateral PV spread in the both groups. METHODS: Ten fresh porcine cadavers were randomized into 2 groups (n=5 each) to receive ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections at Th4-Th5 level with either 10 mL (low-volume group) or 30 mL (high-volume group) of 2% lidocaine and methylene blue mixture. After the procedure, the cadavers were dissected and frozen. Cross-section cuts (~1 cm thick) were performed to evaluate the injectate spread. RESULTS: In the high-volume group, injectate spread from the retrolaminar to the PV space was observed in all specimens (5 out of 5; 100%), while in the low-volume group, no apparent spread to the PV space was found (0 out of 5; 0%). No epidural or contralateral PV spread was observed in any of the specimens. CONCLUSION: Following ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections in fresh porcine cadavers, injectate spread from the retrolaminar tissue plane to the PV space is strongly volume dependent, suggesting that, clinically, high local anesthetic volumes maybe critical for achieving regional anesthesia and analgesia consistent with traditional PV blockade.
KEYWORDS: injections; local anesthetic; paravertebral space; vertebral lamina
Bloqueo cervical epidural continuo. Tratamiento del hipo intratable
Continuous cervical epidural block: Treatment for intractable hiccups.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Feb;97(6):e9444. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009444.
Abstract
Intractable hiccups, although rare, may result in severe morbidity, including sleep deprivation, poor food intake, respiratory muscle fatigue, aspiration pneumonia, and death. Despite these potentially fatal complications, the etiology of intractable hiccups and definitive treatment are unknown.......Continuous C3-C5 level cervical epidural block has a successful remission rate. We suggest that continuous cervical epidural block is an effective treatment for intractable hiccups.
Bloqueo cervical epidural para manejo de cirugía de trauma de miembro superior
Dra. Leslian Janet Mejía-Gómez
Rev Mex Anestesiol Volumen 36, Suplemento 1, abril-junio 2013
INTRODUCCIÓN
Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), los accidentes de tránsito producen diez millones de heridos y 300,000 muertes por año (1). En los países con mayor población de personas menores de 45 años los accidentes automovilísticos y laborales son la primera causa de cirugía por traumatismo de miembro superior (2). La proporción hombre:mujer es de 3 a 1(1,6). El manejo clínico y las decisiones anestésicas y terapéuticas dependen del tipo y de la gravedad de la fractura (3). Actualmente el trauma de miembro superior ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de los traumatismos en general, después que el trauma abdominal. Grant J (4), refi ere la incidencia del 78% de trauma en el miembro superior. El mecanismo de lesión más frecuente es directo y en segundo lugar por mecanismo indirecto secundario a tracción flexión (4,5). Las más afectadas son personas jóvenes en edad productiva, recibiendo los hombres, más lesiones que las mujeres en una proporción de 3:1.1(1,6).
Bloqueo cervicotorácico en cirugía de mama
World Congress on Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
April 19-21, 2018, New York City, USA
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Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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