domingo, 18 de febrero de 2018

Dolor neuropático / Neurophatic pain

Febrero 18, 2018. No. 2998
Fenotipo sensorial y factores de riesgo para la neuropatía diabética dolorosa: un estudio observacional transversal.
Sensory phenotype and risk factors for painful diabetic neuropathy: a cross-sectional observational study.
Pain. 2017 Dec;158(12):2340-2353. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001034.
Abstract
Different sensory profiles in diabetic distal symmetrical sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSPN) may be associated with pain and the responsiveness to analgesia. We aimed to characterize sensory phenotypes of patients with painful and painless diabetic neuropathy and to assess demographic, clinical, metabolic, and electrophysiological parameters related to the presence of neuropathic pain in a large cohort of well-defined DSPN subjects. This observational cross-sectional multi-center cohort study (performed as part of the ncRNAPain EU consortium) of 232 subjects with nonpainful (n = 74) and painful (n = 158) DSPN associated with diabetes mellitus of type 1 and 2 (median age 63 years, range 21-87 years; 92 women) comprised detailed history taking, laboratory tests, neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and neuropathy severity scores. All parameters were analyzed with regard to the presence and severity of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was positively correlated with the severity of neuropathy and thermal hyposensitivity (P < 0.001). A minority of patients with painful DSPN (14.6%) had a sensory profile, indicating thermal hypersensitivity that was associated with less severe neuropathy. Neuropathic pain was further linked to female sex and higher cognitive appraisal of pain as assessed by the pain catastrophizing scale (P < 0.001), while parameters related to diabetes showed no influence on neuropathic pain with the exception of laboratory signs of nephropathy. This study confirms the value of comprehensive DSPN phenotyping and underlines the importance of the severity of neuropathy for the presence of pain. Different sensory phenotypes might be useful for stratification of patients with painful DSPN for analgesic treatment and drug trials.
Tratamientos tópicos para dolor neuropático localizado
Topical Treatments for Localized Neuropathic Pain.
Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2017 Mar;21(3):15. doi: 10.1007/s11916-017-0615-y.
Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Topical therapeutic approaches in localized neuropathic pain (LNP) syndromes are increasingly used by both specialists and general practitioners, with a potentially promising effect on pain reduction. In this narrative review, we describe the available compounds for topical use in LNP syndromes and address their potential efficacy according to the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Local anaesthetics (e.g., lidocaine, bupivacaine and mepivacaine), as well as general anaesthetic agents (e.g., ketamine), muscle relaxants (e.g., baclofen), capsaicin, anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., diclofenac), salicylates, antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline and doxepin), α2 adrenergic agents (e.g., clonidine), or even a combination of them have been tested in various applications for the treatment of LNP. Few of them have reached a sufficient level of evidence to support systematic use as treatment options. Relatively few systemic side effects or drug-drug interactions and satisfactory efficacy seem to be the benefits of topical treatments. More well-organized and tailored studies are necessary for the further conceptualization of topical treatments for LNP.
KEYWORDS: Localized neuropathic pain; Topical amitriptyline; Topical baclofen; Topical clonidine; Topical ketamine; Topical lidocaine
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