J Pain Res. 2016 Feb 10;9:37-47. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S85782. eCollection 2016.
Moderate-to-severe pain following neurosurgery is common but often does not get attention and is therefore underdiagnosed and undertreated. Compounding this problem is the traditional belief that neurosurgical pain is inconsequential and even dangerous to treat. Concerns about problematic effects associated with opioid analgesics such as nausea, vomiting, oversedation, and increased intracranial pressure secondary to elevated carbon dioxide tension from respiratory depression have often led to suboptimal postoperative analgesic strategies in caring for neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical patients may have difficulty or be incapable of communicating their need for analgesics due to neurologic deficits, which poses an additional challenge. Postoperative pain control should be a priority, because pain adversely affects recovery and patient outcomes. Inconsistent practices and the quality of current analgesic strategies for neurosurgical patients still leave room for improvement. Given the complexity of postoperative pain management for these patients, multimodal strategies are often required to optimize pain control and at the same time limit undesired side effects.
KEYWORDS: acute pain; post craniotomy analgesia; post surgical pain
Oxytocin is the uterotonic agent of choice in the prevention and treatment of postpartum uterine atony. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on the optimal dose and rate for use in cesarean sections. The use of high bolus doses (e.g., 10IU of oxytocin) can determine deleterious cardiovascular changes for the patient, especially in situations of hypovolemia or low cardiac reserve. Furthermore, high doses of oxytocin for prolonged periods may lead to desensitization of oxytocin receptors in myometrium, resulting in clinical inefficiency.
This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients' lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in generalPDF
Fibromialgia. Estrategias de manejo para los médicos de atención primaria
Fibromyalgia: management strategies for primary care providers.
AIMS: Fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic disorder defined by widespread pain, often accompanied by fatigue and sleep disturbance, affects up to one in 20 patients in primary care. Although most patients with FM are managed in primary care, diagnosis and treatment continue to present a challenge, and patients are often referred to specialists. Furthermore, the lack of a clear patient pathway often results in patients being passed from specialist to specialist, exhaustive investigations, prescription of multiple drugs to treat different symptoms, delays in diagnosis, increased disability and increased healthcare resource utilisation. We will discuss the current and evolving understanding of FM, and recommend improvements in the management and treatment of FM, highlighting the role of the primary care physician, and the place of the medical home in FM management. METHODS: We reviewed the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of FM by searching PubMed and references from relevant articles, and selected articles on the basis of quality, relevance to the illness and importance in illustrating current management pathways and the potential for future improvements. RESULTS: The implementation of a framework for chronic pain management in primary care would limit unnecessary, time-consuming, and costly tests, reduce diagnostic delay and improve patient outcomes. DISCUSSION: The patient-centred medical home (PCMH), a management framework that has been successfully implemented in other chronicdiseases, might improve the care of patients with FM in primary care, by bringing together a team of professionals with a range of skills and training. CONCLUSION: Although there remain several barriers to overcome, implementation of a PCMH would allow patients with FM, like those with other chronic conditions, to be successfully managed in the primary care setting.
Edited by William S. Wilke, ISBN 978-953-307-407-8, 232 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published January 05, 2012 under CC BY 3.0 license DOI: 10.5772/1468 Edited Volume Given the potential problems that can obscure any scientific enterprise, inconsistent results across studies are bound to occur. How are we to decide what is true? Let's turn to philosophy for a reasonable answer. The mathematician-philosopher Bertrand Russell approached a similar problem in his monograph The Problems of Philosophy (Russell B, 1912). He addressed the following question: How do we know that anything is "real"? Is the only reality subjective and simply in our minds, as Bishop Berkley challenged, or can we mostly believe the objective reality? His pragmatic answer: All possibilities may be true, but when the preponderance of evidence indicates that objective reality and knowledge are the most probable case, go with it. If the preponderance of all evidence about the clinical description of fibromyalgia and it's pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies indicate a highly probable interrelated hypothesis, go with it. The direction of the literature on the whole trumps the less likely tangents. At the same time, remember Bertrand Russell and his pragmatic answer, and keep an open mind.