miércoles, 8 de febrero de 2017

Anatomía normal y sonográfica de nervios periféricos / Normal and sonographic anatomy of peripheral nerves

Febrero 8, 2017. No. 2594







Anatomía normal y ecográfica de los nervios periféricos seleccionados. Parte I: Sonohistología y principios generales del examen, siguiendo el ejemplo del nervio mediano.
Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve.
J Ultrason. 2012 Jun;12(49):120-30. doi: 10.15557/JoU.2012.0001. Epub 2012 Jun 30.
Abstract
Ultrasonography is an established method for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It enables the identification of post-traumatic changes of nerves, neuropathies secondary to compression syndromes, inflammatory or neoplastic nerve lesions as well as the evaluation of postoperative complications. In certain situations, this technique is the imaging method of choice. It is increasingly used in anesthesiology for regional anesthesia. As in the case of other ultrasound imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. This article presents the histological structure of peripheral nerves and their appearance in ultrasonography. It also presents the examination technique, following the example of the median nerve, and includes a series of diagrams and ultrasound images. The interpretation of the shape, echogenicity, thickness and vascularity of nerves is described, as well as their relation to the surrounding tissues. The "elevator technique", which consists of locating a set nerve at a characteristic anatomic point, and following it proximally or distally, has been explained. The undisputed benefits of the ultrasound examination have been presented, including its advantages over other diagnostic methods. These advantages include the dynamic component of the ultrasound examination and the possibility of correlating the patient's symptoms with the ultrasound images. As an example, the proper anatomy and the ultrasonographic appearance of the median nerve were described. This nerve's course is presented, its divisions, and characteristic reference points, so as to facilitate its location and identification, and enable subsequent use of the aforementioned "elevator technique". This article opens a series of publications concerning anatomy, technique of examination and pathologies of peripheral nerves.
KEYWORDS: median nerve; peripheral nerves; proper anatomy; ultrasonographic anatomy; ultrasonography
 Anatomía normal y ecográfica de los nervios periféricos seleccionados. Parte II: Los nervios periféricos del miembro superior.
Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb.
J Ultrason. 2012 Jun;12(49):131-47. doi: 10.15557/JoU.2012.0002. Epub 2012 Jun 30.
Abstract
The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck - the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination.
KEYWORDS: examination technique; peripheral nerves of the upper extremity; proper anatomy; ultrasonographic anatomy; ultrasonography
Anatomía normal y ecográfica de los nervios periféricos seleccionados. Parte III: Los nervios periféricos de la extremidad inferior.
Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.
J Ultrason. 2012 Jun;12(49):148-63. doi: 10.15557/JoU.2012.0003. Epub 2012 Jun 30.
Abstract
The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".
KEYWORDS: examination technique; peripheral nerves of the lower extremity; proper anatomy; ultrasonographic anatomy; ultrasonography.
5to curso internacional Anestesiologia cardiotoracica_ vascular_ ecocardiografia y circulaci_n extracorporea.


Curso Internacional de Actualidades en Anestesiología
Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
Cuidad de México, Febrero 9-11, 2017
Informes  ceddem_innsz@yahoo.com 
Curso sobre Anestesia en Trasplantes, Cirugía abdominal, Plástica, Oftalmología y Otorrinolaringología.
Committee for European Education in Anaesthesiology (CEEA) 
y el Colegio de Anestesiólogos de León A.C.
Abril 7-9, 2017, León Guanajuato, México

Informes  (477) 716 06 16, kikinhedz@gmail.com
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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