martes, 7 de marzo de 2017

US de vía aérea / Airway ultrasound

Marzo 7, 2017. No. 2621


Ultrasonido laringotraqueal para confirmar la colocación correcta del tubo endotraqueal y ML
Laryngo-tracheal ultrasonography to confirm correct endotracheal tube and laryngeal mask airway placement.
J Ultrason. 2014 Dec;14(59):362-6. doi: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0037. Epub 2014 Dec 30.
Waveform capnography was recommended as the most reliable method to confirm correct endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway placements. However, capnography may be unreliable during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and during low flow states. It may lead to an unnecessary removal of a well-placed endotracheal tube, re-intubation and interruption of chest compressions. Real-time upper airway (laryngo-tracheal) ultrasonography to confirm correct endotracheal tube placement was shown to be very useful in cadaveric models and during emergency intubation. Tracheal ultrasonography does not interrupt chest compressions and is not affected by low pulmonary flow or airway obstruction, but is limited by ultrasonography scattering and acoustic artifacts generated in air - mucosa interfaces. Sonographic upper airway assessment emerges as a rapid and easily available method to predict difficult intubation, to assess the laryngeal and hypopharyngeal size and visualize the position of the laryngeal mask airway in situ. This study demonstrates that the replacement of air with saline in endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway cuffs and the use of the contrast agents enables detection of cuffs in the airway. It also allows visualization of the surrounding structures or tissues as the ultrasound beam can be transmitted through the fluid - filled cuffs without being reflected from air - mucosal interfaces.
KEYWORDS: endotracheal intubation; laryngeal mask airway; upper airway sonography

Ultrasonido: Una herramienta prometedora para el manejo contemporáneo de las vías respiratorias.
Ultrasound: A promising tool for contemporary airway management.
World J Clin Cases. 2015 Nov 16;3(11):926-9. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v3.i11.926.
Airway evaluation and its management remains an ever emerging clinical science. Present airway management tools are static and do not provide dynamic airway management option. Visualized procedures like ultrasound (US) provide point of care real time dynamic views of the airway in perioperative, emergency and critical care settings. US can provide dynamic anatomical assessment which is not possible by clinical examination alone. US aids in detecting gastric contents and the nature of gastric contents (clear fluid, thick turbid or solid) as well. US can help in predicting endotracheal tube size by measuring subglottic diameter and diameter of left main stem bronchus. US was found to be a sensitive in detecting rotational malposition of LMA in children. Also, US is the fastest and highly sensitive tool to rule out a suspected intraoperative pneumothorax. In intensive care units, US helps torule out causes of inadequate ventilation, determine the tracheal width and distance from the skin to predict tracheotomy tube size and shape and assist with percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. US can help in confirming the correct tracheal tube placement by dynamic visualisation of the endotracheal tube insertion, widening of vocal cords (children), and bilateral lung-sliding and diaphragmatic movement. Thus, ultrasonography has brought a paradigm shift in the practise of airway management. With increasing awareness, portability, accessibility and further sophistication in technology, it is likely to find a place in routine airway management. We are not far from the time when all of us will be carrying a pocket US machine like stethoscopes to corroborate our clinical findings at point of care.
KEYWORDS: Airway; Difficult; Evaluation; Management; Ultrasound
5to curso internacional Anestesiologia cardiotoracica_ vascular_ ecocardiografia y circulaci_n extracorporea.

Curso sobre Anestesia en Trasplantes, Cirugía abdominal, Plástica, Oftalmología y Otorrinolaringología.
Committee for European Education in Anaesthesiology (CEEA) 
y el Colegio de Anestesiólogos de León A.C.
Abril 7-9, 2017, León Guanajuato, México

Informes  (477) 716 06 16,
4° Congreso Internacional de Control Total de la Vía Aérea
Asociación Mexicana de Vía  Aérea Difícil, AC
Ciudad de México 21, 22 y 23 de Abril 2017
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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