sábado, 11 de marzo de 2017

ML en pediatría / LMA in pediatrics

Marzo 4, 2017. No. 2618

Estudio piloto en maniquí mostró que un dispositivo de vía aérea supraglótica mejoró la ventilación neonatal simulada en un entorno de bajos recursos.
Pilot manikin study showed that a supraglottic airway device improved simulated neonatal ventilation in a low-resource setting.
Acta Paediatr. 2016 Dec;105(12):1440-1443. doi: 10.1111/apa.13565.
AIM: We compared the performance of personnel in a low-resource setting when they used the I-gel cuffless neonatal laryngeal mask or a face mask on a neonatal airway management manikin. METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Uganda, 25 doctors, nurses and midwives involved in neonatal resuscitation were given brief training with the I-gel and face mask. Then, every participant was observed positioning both devices on three consecutive occasions. The success rate and insertion times leading to effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV) were recorded. Participants rated the perceived efficiency of the devices using a five-point Likert scale. RESULTS: The I-gel achieved a 100% success rate on all three occasions, but the face mask was significantly less effective in achieving effective PPV and the failure rates at the first, second and third attempts were 28%, 8% and 20%, respectively. The perceived efficiency of the devices was significantly superior for the I-gel (4.7 ± 0.4) than the face mask (3.3 ± 0.8). CONCLUSION: The I-gel was more effective than the face mask in establishing PPV in the manikin, and user satisfaction was higher. These encouraging manikin data could be a stepping stone for clinical research on the use of the I-gel for neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings.
KEYWORDS: Face mask; I-gel; Laryngeal mask; Low-resource country; Neonatal resuscitation

Uso de ML durante ecocardiografía transesofágica en pacientes pediátricos
The use of laryngeal mask airway during transesophageal echocardiography in pediatric patients.
Saudi J Anaesth. 2014 Oct;8(4):489-92. doi: 10.4103/1658-354X.140858.
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the cardiac lab is usually performed in pediatric patients under general anesthesia with an endotracheal intubation (ET). This study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as an alternative to ET to maintain pediatric airway during the general anesthesia for TEE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 pediatric patients undergoing TEE in the cardiac lab were randomized to have their airway maintained during the procedure with either LMA (LMA group) or ET (ET group). Hemodynamic, respiratory parameters, time to extubation, recovery time, the incidence of complication and operator satisfaction were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no differences between both groups in hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Laryngeal spasm was reported in one patient in the LMA group and two patients in the ET group. TEE operators were equally satisfied with the procedure in groups. The time to extubation was shorter in the LMA group (P < 0.01). The mean recovery time was also significantly shorter in the LMA than in the ET group (44 ± 8 min and 59 ± 11 min, respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The LMA is safe and effective in securing the airway of children undergoing diagnostic TEE.
KEYWORDS: Laryngeal mask airway; randomized clinical trial; transesophageal echocardiography

ML para resucitación neonatal en un país en desarrollo
Laryngeal Mask Airway for neonatal resuscitation in a developing country: evaluation of an educational intervention. Neonatal LMA: an educational intervention in DRC.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2010 Aug 31;10:254. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-254.
BACKGROUND: Studies carried out in developing countries have indicated that training courses in newborn resuscitation are efficacious in teaching local birth attendants how to properly utilize simple resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and expertise gained by physicians and midwifes who participated in a Neonatal Resuscitation Course and workshop organized in a Third World Country on the use of Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA). METHODS: A 28-item questionnaire, derived from the standard test contained in the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Manual, was administered to 21 physicians and 7 midwifes before and after a course, which included a practical, hands-on workshop focusing on LMA positioning and bag-ventilation in a neonatal manikin. RESULTS: The knowledge gained by the physicians was superior to that demonstrated by the midwifes. The physicians, in fact, demonstrated a significant improvement with respect to their pre-course knowledge. Both the physicians and the midwives showed a good level of expertise in manipulating the manipulating the manikin during the practical trial session. The midwifes and physicians almost unanimously manifested a high degree of approval of neonatal resuscitation by LMA, as they defined it a sustainable and cost-effective method requiring minimal expertise. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are warranted to test the advantages and limits of the neonatal LMA training courses in developing countries.

Curso sobre Anestesia en Trasplantes, Cirugía abdominal, Plástica, Oftalmología y Otorrinolaringología.
Committee for European Education in Anaesthesiology (CEEA) 
y el Colegio de Anestesiólogos de León A.C.
Abril 7-9, 2017, León Guanajuato, México

Informes  (477) 716 06 16, kikinhedz@gmail.com
4° Congreso Internacional de Control Total de la Vía Aérea
Asociación Mexicana de Vía  Aérea Difícil, AC
Ciudad de México 21, 22 y 23 de Abril 2017
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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