viernes, 14 de julio de 2017

Mas de feocromocitoma / More on pheochromocytoma

Julio 6, 2017. No. 2741

Visite M_xico

Alfa bloqueo selectivo versus no selectivo antes de adrenalectomía laparoscópica
Selective Versus Non-selective α-Blockade Prior to Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Pheochromocytoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2017 Jan;24(1):244-250. doi: 10.1245/s10434-016-5514-7. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
BACKGROUND: The optimal preoperative α-blockade strategy is debated for patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytomas. We evaluated the impact of selective versus non-selective α-blockade on intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: We identified patients having laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytomas from 2001 to 2015. As a marker of overall intraoperative hemodynamics, we combined systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 200, SBP < 80, SBP < 80 and >200, pulse > 120, vasopressor infusion, and vasodilator infusion into a single variable. Similarly, the combination of vasopressor infusion in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission provided an overview of postoperative support. RESULTS: We identified 52 patients undergoing unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Selective α-blockade (i.e. doxazosin) was performed in 35 % (n = 18) of patients, and non-selective blockade with phenoxybenzamine was performed in 65 % (n = 34) of patients. Demographics and tumor characteristics were similar between groups. Patients blocked selectively were more likely to have an SBP < 80 (67 %) than those blocked with phenoxybenzamine (35 %) (p = 0.03), but we found no significant difference in overall intraoperative hemodynamics between patients blocked selectively and non-selectively (p = 0.09). However, postoperatively, patients blocked selectively were more likely to require additional support with vasopressor infusions in the PACU or ICU admission (p = 0.02). Hospital stay and complication rates were similar. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma is safe regardless of the preoperative α-blockade strategy employed, but patients blocked selectively may have a higher incidence of transient hypotension during surgery and a greater need for postoperative support. These differences did not result in longer hospital stay or increased complications.

Manejo perioperatorio actual de los feocromocitomas
Current perioperative management of pheochromocytomas.
Indian J Urol. 2017 Jan-Mar;33(1):19-25. doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.194781.
Neuroendocrine tumors which have the potential to secrete catecholamines are either associated with sympathetic adrenal (pheochromocytoma) or nonadrenal (paraganglioma) tissue. Surgical removal of these tumors is always indicated to cure and prevent cardiovascular and other organ system complications associated with catecholamine excess. Some of these tumors have malignant potential as well. The diagnosis, localization and anatomical delineation of these tumors involve measurement of catecholamines and their metabolic end products in plasma and urine, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Before surgical removal of the tumors, the optimization of blood pressure, as well as intravascular volume, is an important measure to avoid and suppress perioperative adverse hemodynamic events. Preoperative preparation includes the use of alpha-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists with or without other antihypertensive agents, fluid therapy as well as insulin therapy for hyperglycemia if required. Due attention should be given to type and dose of alpha-receptor antagonists to be used and the duration of this therapy to achieve an optimal level of preoperative "alpha-blockade." Despite this preoperative preparation, many patients will have hypertensive crises intraoperatively which need to be promptly and carefully managed by the anesthesia team which requires intensive and advanced monitoring techniques. The most common complication after tumor removal is hypotension which may require fluid therapy and vasopressor support for a few hours. With advancement in surgical and anesthetic techniques, the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality associated with the surgery is low in high volume centers.

XIV Congreso Virtual Mexicano de Anestesiología 2017
Octubre 1-Diciembre 31, 2017
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