viernes, 14 de julio de 2017

Diabetes y UCI / ICU and diabetic patients

Julio 12, 2017. No. 2747

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El efecto de la administración de insulina sobre el péptido c en el diabético tipo 2 grave
The effect of insulin administration on c-peptide in critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes.
Ann Intensive Care. 2017 Dec;7(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s13613-017-0274-5. Epub 2017 May 12.
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients with permissive hyperglycemia, it is uncertain whether exogenous insulin administration suppresses or enhances c-peptide secretion (a marker of pancreatic beta-cell response). We aimed to explore this effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of 45 critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes managed according to a liberal glucose protocol (target blood glucose 10-14 mmol/l). We recorded the administration of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents and measured plasma c-peptide as surrogate marker of endogenous insulin secretion on the first two consecutive days in ICU. RESULTS: Overall, 20 (44.4%) patients required insulin to achieve target blood glucose. Insulin-treated patients had higher glycated hemoglobin A1c, more premorbid insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes, and greater blood glucose levels but lower c-peptide levels on admission. Premorbid insulin-requiring diabetes was independently associated with lower admission c-peptide, whereas greater plasma creatinine was independently associated with higher levels. Increases in c-peptide were positively correlated with an increase in blood glucose both in patients who did (r = 0.54, P = 0.01) and did not (r = 0.56, P = 0.004) receive insulin. However, insulin administration was independently associated with a greater increase in c-peptide (P = 0.04). This association was not modified by the use of oral insulin secretagogues. CONCLUSIONS: C-peptide, a marker of beta-cell response, responds to and is influenced by glycemia and renal function in critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, in our cohort, exogenous insulin administration was associated with a greater increase in c-peptide in response to hyperglycemia. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000216516).
KEYWORDS: Blood glucose; C-peptide; Critical care, beta-cell; Diabetes mellitus; Insulin

Hiperglicemia inducida por estrés y el riesgo subsecuente de DM2 en sobrevivientes de UCI
Stress Induced Hyperglycemia and the Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Survivors of Critical Illness.
PLoS One. 2016 Nov 8;11(11):e0165923. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165923. eCollection 2016.
OBJECTIVE: Stress induced hyperglycemia occurs in critically ill patients who have normal glucose tolerance following resolution of their acute illness. The objective was to evaluate the association between stress induced hyperglycemia and incident diabetes in survivors of critical illness. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All adult patients surviving admission to a public hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in South Australia between 2004 and 2011. PATIENTS:
Stress induced hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) within 24 hours of ICU admission. Prevalent diabetes was identified through ICD-10 coding or prior registration with the Australian National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS). Incident diabetes was identified as NDSS registration beyond 30 days after hospital discharge until July 2015. The predicted risk of developing diabetes was described as sub-hazard ratios using competing risk regression. Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. MAIN RESULTS: Stress induced hyperglycemia was identified in 2,883 (17%) of 17,074 patients without diabetes. The incidence of type 2 diabetes following critical illness was 4.8% (821 of 17,074). The risk of diabetes in patients with stress induced hyperglycemia was approximately double that of those without (HR 1.91 (95% CI 1.62, 2.26), p<0.001) and was sustained regardless of age or severity of illness. CONCLUSIONS: Stress induced hyperglycemia identifies patients at subsequent risk of incident diabetes.

Revisión de la evidencia para los protocolos de manejo de cetoacidosis diabética en adultos.
Review of Evidence for Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management Protocols.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017 Jun 13;8:106. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00106. eCollection 2017.
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an endocrine emergency with associated risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, DKA management lacks strong evidence due to the absence of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To review existing studies investigating inpatient DKA management in adults, focusing on intravenous (IV) fluids; insulin administration; potassium, bicarbonate, and phosphate replacement; and DKA management protocols and impact of DKA resolution rates on outcomes.
CONCLUSION: There are major deficiencies in evidence for optimal management of DKA. Current practice is guided by weak evidence and consensus opinion. All aspects of DKA management require RCTs to affirm or redirect management and formulate consensus evidence-based practice to improve patient outcomes.
KEYWORDS: diabetes; diabetic ketoacidosis; hypoglycemia; hypokalemia; insulin; metabolic acidosis; protocol; rehydration

XIV Congreso Virtual Mexicano de Anestesiología 2017
Octubre 1-Diciembre 31, 2017
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