viernes, 6 de enero de 2017

Errores médicos / Medical errors

Enero 6, 2017. No. 2561

Definiendo la excelencia: los próximos pasos para los clínicos que tratan de prevenir el error de diagnóstico.
Defining excellence: next steps for practicing clinicians seeking to prevent diagnostic error.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. 2016 Sep 7;6(4):31994. doi: 10.3402/jchimp.v6.31994. eCollection 2016.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its report on diagnostic errors in September, 2015. The report highlights the urgency of reducing errors and calls for system-level intervention and changes in our basic clinical interactions. Using the report's controversial definition of diagnostic error as a starting point, we introduce the issues and the potential impact on practicing physicians. We report a case used to illustrate this in an academic conference. Finally, we turn to the challenge of integrating these ideas into the traditional peer-review process. We argue that the medical community must evolve from understanding diagnostic failures to redesigning the diagnostic process. We should see errors as steps toward diagnostic excellence and reliable processes that minimize the risk of mislabeling and harm.
KEYWORDS: Institute of Medicine; diagnostic error; graduate medical education; patient safety; peer review

Efecto adverso y error de eventos inesperados que amenazan la vida dentro de las 24 horas del ingreso al servicio de urgencias.
Adverse event and error of unexpected life-threatening events within 24h of emergency department admission.
Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Nov 30. pii: S0735-6757(16)30897-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.11.062.
OBJECTIVES: Errors and adverse events associated with unexpected life-threatening events including unplanned transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) and unexpected death after emergency department (ED) hospitalization are not well characterized. We performed this study to investigate the role of unexpected life-threatening events as a trigger to capture errors and adverse events for ED patient safety. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled adult non-trauma patients with unexpected life-threatening events within 24h of general ward admission from the ED of a medical center in Taiwan. The period of study was one year (in 2013); the medical records of enrolled patients were reviewed to identify adverse events and errors. We measured the incidence rate of adverse events or errors. Preventability, type, and physical injury severity of adverse events were investigated. RESULTS: Of 33,224 adult non-trauma ward admissions from the ED, 100 admissions (0.3%) met the study criteria. Incidence rate was 2% and 15% for errors and adverse events, respectively. In admissions involving error, all were preventable and the error type was overlooked of severity. In admissions that involved adverse events, 93.3% were preventable. There were 20% of admissions that resulted in death and 60% developed with severe physical injury. The adverse event types were diagnosis issues (53.3%), management issues (40%), and medication adverse events (6.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Unexpected life-threatening events within 24h of admission from the ED could be a useful trigger tool to identify preventable adverse events with serious physical injury in ED.

Análisis descriptivo de once años de veredictos de corte cerrado sobre errores médicos en España y Massachusetts.
Eleven-year descriptive analysis of closed court verdicts on medical errors in Spain and Massachusetts.
BMJ Open. 2016 Aug 30;6(8):e011644. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011644.
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate and compare the characteristics of court verdicts on medical errors allegedly harming patients in Spain and Massachusetts from 2002 to 2012. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We reviewed 1041 closed court verdicts obtained from data on litigation in the Thomson Reuters Aranzadi Westlaw databases in Spain (Europe), and 370 closed court verdicts obtained from the Controlled Risk and Risk Management Foundation of Harvard Medical Institutions (CRICO/RMF) in Massachusetts (USA). We included closed court verdicts on medical errors. The definition of medical errors was based on that of the Institute of Medicine (USA). We excluded any agreements between parties before a judgement. RESULTS: Medical errors were involved in 25.9% of court verdicts in Spain and in 74% of those in Massachusetts. The most frequent cause of medical errors was a diagnosis-related problem (25.1%; 95% CI 20.7% to 31.1% in Spain; 35%; 95% CI 29.4% to 40.7% in Massachusetts). The proportion of medical errors classified as high severity was 34% higher in Spain than in Massachusetts (p=0.001). The most frequent factors contributing to medical errors in Spain were surgical and medical treatment (p=0.001). In Spain, 98.5% of medical errors resulted in compensation awards compared with only 6.9% in Massachusetts. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals wide differences in litigation rates and the award of indemnity payments in Spain and Massachusetts; however, common features of both locations are the high rates of diagnosis-related problems and the long time interval until resolution.

5to Curso Internacional de Anestesiología cardiotorácica, vascular, ecocardiografía y circulación extracorpórea. SMACT
Mayo 4-6, 2017, Mexicali, México
Informes Dr. Hugo Martínez Espinoza 
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
California Society of Anesthesiologists
Annual Meeting April 27-30, 2017
San Francisco California
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