viernes, 6 de enero de 2017

Mortalidad postoperatoria / Postoperative mortality

Enero 4, 2017. No. 2560

Nuevo sistema de puntuación quirúrgica para predecir la mortalidad postoperatoria.
New surgical scoring system to predict postoperative mortality.
J Anesth. 2016 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE: There is still no easy and highly useful method to comprehensively assess both preoperative and intraoperative patient statuses to predict postoperative outcomes. We attempted to develop a new scoring system that would enable a comprehensive assessment of preoperative and intraoperative patient statuses instantly at the end of anesthesia, predicting postoperative mortality. METHODS: The study included 32,555 patients who underwent surgery under general or regional anesthesia from 2008 to 2012. From the anesthesia records, extracted factors, including patient characteristics and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA-PS), and three intraoperative indexes (the lowest heart rate, lowest mean arterial pressure, and estimated volume of blood loss) are used to calculate the surgical Apgar score (sAs). The sAs and ASA-PS, and surgical Apgar score combined with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (SASA), which combines the sAs and ASA-PS into a single adjusted scale, were compared and analyzed with postoperative 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Increased severity of the sAs, ASA-PS and SASA was correlated with significantly higher mortality. The risk of death was elevated by 3.65 for every 2-point decrease in the sAs, by 6.4 for every 1-point increase in the ASA-PS, and by 9.56 for every 4-point decrease in the SASA. The ROC curves of the sAs and ASA-PS alone also individually demonstrated high validity (AUC = 0.81 for sAs and 0.79 for ASA-PS, P < 0.001). The SASA was even more valid (AUC = 0.87, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The sAs and ASA-PS were shown to be extremely useful for predicting 30-day mortality after surgery. An even higher predictive ability was demonstrated by the SASA, which combines these simple and effective scoring systems.
KEYWORDS: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA-PS); Patient safety; Postoperative mortality; Surgical Apgar score (sAs)
El puntaje de apgar quirúrgico predice la complicación temprana en amputados transfemorales: Estudio retrospectivo de 170 amputaciones mayores.
Surgical apgar score predicts early complication in transfemoral amputees: Retrospective study of 170 major amputations.
World J Orthop. 2016 Dec 18;7(12):832-838. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v7.i12.832. eCollection 2016.
AIM: To assess whether the surgical apgar score (SAS) is a prognostic tool capable of identifying patients at risk of major complications following lower extremity amputations surgery. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective observational cohort study conducted between January 2013 and April 2015. All patients who had either a primary transtibial amputation (TTA) or transfemoral amputation (TFA) conducted at our institution during the study period were assessed for inclusion. All TTA patients underwent a standardized one-stage operative procedure (ad modum Persson amputation) performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint. All TTA procedures were performed with sagittal flaps. TFA procedures were performed in one stage with amputation approximately 10 cm above the knee joint, performed with anterior/posterior flaps. Trained residents or senior consultants performed the surgical procedures. The SAS is based on intraoperative heart rate, blood pressure and blood loss. Intraoperative parameters of interest were collected by revising electronic health records. The first author of this study calculated the SAS. Data regarding major complications were not revealed to the author until after the calculation of SAS. The SAS results were arranged into four groups (SAS 0-4, SAS 5-6, SAS 7-8 and SAS 9-10). The cohort was then divided into two groups representing low-risk (SAS ≥ 7) and high-risk patients (SAS < 7) using a previously established threshold. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of major complications and death within 30-d of surgery. RESULTS: A logistic regression model with SAS 9-10 as a reference showed a significant linear association between lower SAS and more postoperative complications [all patients: OR = 2.00 (1.33-3.03), P = 0.001]. This effect was pronounced for TFA [OR = 2.61 (1.52-4.47), P < 0.001]. A significant increase was observed for the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group for all patients [OR = 2.80 (1.40-5.61), P = 0.004] and for the TFA sub-group [OR = 3.82 (1.5-9.42), P = 0.004]. The AUC from the models were estimated as follows: All patients = [0.648 (0.562-0.733), P = 0.001], for TFA patients = [0.710 (0.606-0.813), P < 0.001] and for TTA patients = [0.472 (0.383-0.672), P = 0.528]. This indicates moderate discriminatory power of the SAS in predicting postoperative complications among TFA patients. CONCLUSION: SAS provides information regarding the potential development of complications following TFA. The SAS is especially useful when patients are divided into high- and low-risk groups.
KEYWORDS: Lower extremity amputation; Mortality; Post-operative complication; Surgical apgar score; Transfemoral amputation

Estudio observacional para valorar y predecir serios eventos adversos después de cirugía mayor
Observational Study to Assess and Predict Serious Adverse Events after Major Surgery.
Acta Med Okayama. 2016 Dec;70(6):461-467.
Many patients suffer from postoperative serious adverse events (SAEs). Here we sought to determine the incidence of SAEs, assess the accuracy of currently used scoring systems in predicting postoperative SAEs, and determine whether a combination of scoring systems would better predict postoperative SAEs. We prospectively evaluated patients who underwent major surgery. We calculated 4 scores: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) score, the Charlson Score, the POSSUM (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) score, and the Surgical Apgar Score (SAS). We assessed the occurrence of SAEs. We assessed the association between each score and SAEs. We combined these scoring systems to find the best combination to predict the occurrence of SAEs. Among 284 patients, 43 suffered SAEs. All scoring systems could predict SAEs. However, their predictive power was not high (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUROC] 0.6-0.7). A combination of the ASA-PS score and the SAS was the most predictive of postoperative SAEs (AUROC 0.714). The incidence of postoperative SAEs was 15.1 . The combination of the ASA-PS score and the SAS may be a useful tool for predicting postoperative serious adverse events after major surgery.

5to Curso Internacional de Anestesiología cardiotorácica, vascular, ecocardiografía y circulación extracorpórea. SMACT
Mayo 4-6, 2017, Mexicali, México
Informes Dr. Hugo Martínez Espinoza 
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
California Society of Anesthesiologists
Annual Meeting April 27-30, 2017
San Francisco California
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