sábado, 27 de junio de 2015

Anestesia y obesidad/Anaesthesia and obseity

Rápido despertar en los pacientes obesos: ¿Qué anestesia es mejor?
Fast wake-up time in obese patients: Which anesthetic is best?
Katznelson R.
CJA June, 2015
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Comparación de los criterios de recuperación en pacientes con obesidad mórbida sometidos a manga gástrica laparoscópica después del uso de sevoflurano e isoflurano.
Comparison of recovery criteria in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection following use of sevoflurane and isoflurane.
Rajan S, Narendran H, Andrews S.
Anesth Essays Res. 2014 May-Aug;8(2):150-5. doi: 10.4103/0259-1162.134484.
Abstract
CONTEXT: The favorable kinetic properties of sevoflurane could be advantageous in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, improving recovery from general anesthesia (GA). AIMS:
To compare the recovery criteria following anesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric sleeve resection. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized controlled study conducted in 50 patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following awake fiberoptic intubation, GA was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in Group A and isoflurane in Group B. 2% sevoflurane and 1.2% isoflurane were used and concentration varied to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >75 mm of Hg, maximum concentration being 3% for sevoflurane and 2% for isoflurane. Inhalational agent was terminated at time of skin suturing and patients were extubated when completely awake. Recovery criteria followed were eye opening on call, voluntary head raising on command for 5 s and orientation assessed by answering name and location. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Student's t-test was used to test statistical significance of difference in mean values between the groups, analysis of covariance was used to test diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes and Chi-square test to assess association between categorical variables. RESULTS: There was no significant variability in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, DBP and MAP between 2 groups up to 210 min. Group A patients had significantly faster eye opening compared to Group B (4.4 ± 1.6 vs. 9.2 ± 2.18 min), were significantly faster in obeying commands (6.08 ± 1.6 vs. 10.08 ± 2.02 min), had a significantly shorter extubation time (7.08 ± 1.6 vs. 11.16 ± 2.18 min) and significantly faster orientation in time as compared to Group B (9.24 ± 1.7 vs. 12.32 ± 2.42 min). CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane has a better recovery profile based on eye opening, obeying commands, time for extubation and orientation, than isoflurane in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
KEYWORDS:Isoflurane; laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; obese; recovery; sevoflurane
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Manejo anestésico de pacientes de cirugía bariátrica. Experiencia de dos años en una hospital en Suiza
Anesthetic management of patients undergoing bariatric surgery: two year experience in a single institution in Switzerland.
Lindauer B, Steurer MP, Müller MK, Dullenkopf A.
BMC Anesthesiol. 2014 Dec 18;14:125. doi: 10.1186/1471-2253-14-125. eCollection 2014.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the field of anesthesia for bariatric surgery, a wide variety of recommendations exist, but a general consensus on the perioperative management of such patients is missing. We outline the perioperative experiences that we gained in the first two years after introducing a bariatric program. METHODS: The perioperative approach was established together with all relevant disciplines. Pertinent topics for the anesthesiologists were; successful airway management, indications for more invasive monitoring, and the planning of the postoperative period and deposition. This retrospective analysis was approved by the local ethics committee. Data are mean [SD]. RESULTS: 182 bariatric surgical procedures were performed (147 gastric bypass procedures (GBP; 146 (99.3%) performed laparascopically). GBP patients were 43 [10] years old, 78% female, BMI 45 [7] kg/m(2), 73% ASA physical status of 2. 42 patients (28.6%) presented with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. 117 GBP (79.6%) patients were intubated conventionally by direct laryngoscopy (one converted to fiber-optic intubation, one aspiration of gastric contents). 32 patients (21.8%) required an arterial line, 10 patients (6.8%) a central venous line. Induction lasted 25 [16] min, the procedure itself 138 [42] min. No blood products were required. Two patients (1.4%) presented with hypothermia (<35 °C) at the end of their case. The emergence period lasted 17 [9] min. Postoperatively, 32 patients (21.8%) were transferred to the ICU (one ventilated). The other patients spent 4.1 [0.7] h in the post anesthesia care unit. 15 patients (10.2%) required take backs for surgical revision (two laparotomies). CONCLUSIONS: The physiology and anatomy of bariatric patients demand a tailored approach from both the anesthesiologist and the perioperative team. The interaction of a multi-disciplinary team is key to achieving good outcomes and a low rate of complications.
KEYWORDS: Anesthesia; Bariatric surgery; Complications; Obesity
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La influencia de laparoscopía vs. bypass gástrico abierto sobre las funciones hemodinámicas en la morbilidad de los obesos durante anestesia general
The influence of laparoscopic vs. open gastric bypass on hemodynamic function in morbidly obese patients during general anesthesia.
Gaszynski T, Szewczyk T.
Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne. 2014 Mar;9(1):83-8. doi: 10.5114/wiitm.2014.40988. Epub 2014 Feb 26.
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The open or laparoscopic procedure has an important influence on the hemodynamic function in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The anesthesiologist and surgeon must be aware of changes in hemodynamic performance during laparoscopy or laparotomy under general anesthesia. AIM: TO EVALUATE AND COMPARE THE HEMODYNAMICS IN TWO TYPES OF SURGERY: open vs. laparoscopic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After obtaining the local ethics committee approval 60 morbidly obese (MO) patients (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) scheduled for elective open or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were included. Patients were allocated to study groups depending on the scheduled type of surgery (no randomization). General anesthesia with sevoflurane was performed. The hemodynamic parameters were recorded using a HemoSonic 100 device - a transesophageal Doppler measurement at time points: T1 - initial, T2 - after creating pneumoperitoneum (group PP) or opening the abdomen (group OP). RESULTS: Complete data were collected on 28 patients in group LP and 21 in group OP. There was no statistical difference between groups in demographic data. At time point T2 in both groups the parameters stroke volume, peak velocity and cardiac index decreased, and total systemic vascular resistance increased significantly compared to T1 (p < 0.05). In group LP the parameters cardiac output and acceleration (Acc) of blood decreased significantly compared to T1 (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between groups (p > 0.05) in cardiac output, total systemic vascular resistance and Acc, which were significantly higher in the OP group. In both groups mean arterial pressure increased and heart rate stayed similar to T1 with no significant difference (p > 0.05). No complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumoperitoneum has a significant negative influence on hemodynamic function during laparoscopic bariatric procedures compared to open surgery in morbidly obese patients.
KEYWORDS: anesthesia; hemodynamics; laparoscopy; laparotomy; obesity
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