domingo, 21 de junio de 2015

Más de bloqueo del plexo braquial/More on brachial plexus block

Comparación de técnicas de bloqueo del plexo braquial axilar guiadas por ultrasonido: inyección perineural contra la infiltración perivascular simple o doble.
Comparison of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block techniques: perineural injection versus single or double perivascular infiltration.
Cho S, Kim YJ, Baik HJ, Kim JH, Woo JH.
Yonsei Med J. 2015 May;56(3):838-44. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2015.56.3.838.
Abstract
PURPOSE: We compared three methods of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block, which were single, and double perivascular (PV) infiltration techniques, and a perineural (PN) injection technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 78 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II undergoing surgery of the forearm, wrist, or hand were randomly allocated to three groups. 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 5 μg/mL was used. The PN group (n=26) received injections at the median, ulnar, and radial nerve with 8 mL for each nerve. The PV1 group (n=26) received a single injection of 24 mL at 12-o'clock position of the axillary artery. The PV2 group (n=26) received two injections of 12 mL each at 12-o'clock and 6-o'clock position. For all groups, musculocutaneous nerve was blocked separately. RESULTS: The PN group (391.2±171.6 sec) had the longest anesthetic procedure duration than PV1 (192.8±59.0 sec) and PV2 (211.4±58.6 sec). There were no differences in onset time. The average induction time was longer in PN group (673.4±149.6 sec) than PV1 (557.6±194.9 sec) and PV2 (561.5±129.8 sec). There were no differences in the success rate (89.7% vs. 86.2% vs. 89.7%).
CONCLUSION: The PV injection technique consisting of a single injection in 12-o'clock position above the axillary artery in addition to a musculocutaneous nerve block is equally effective and less time consuming than the PN technique. Therefore, the PV technique is an alternative method that may be used in busy clinics or for difficult cases.
KEYWORDS: Brachial plexus; nerve block; ultrasonography
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Dexmedetomidina como adyuvante de ropivacaína en el bloqueo supraclavicular del plexo braquial
Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block.
Kathuria S, Gupta S, Dhawan I.
Saudi J Anaesth. 2015 Apr-Jun;9(2):148-54. doi: 10.4103/1658-354X.152841.
Abstract
CONTEXT: Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in peripheral nerve blocks has been used in only a few studies. AIMS: We aimed at assessing the effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
Random, controlled, and triple blind. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist grade I and II patients of either sex scheduled for elective upper limb surgery under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into three equal groups in a prospective randomized double-blind controlled manner. For block patients in Group C received 0.5% ropivacaine (30cc), 0.5% ropivacaine with 50 μg dexmedetomidine (30cc) in Group D and 0.5% ropivacaine (30cc) in Group D-IV along with intravenous infusion of 50 μg dexmedetomidine in normal saline. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: IBM-SPSS software version 17, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: Demographic profile and surgical characteristics were similar in all the three groups. Sensory block and motor block onset was earlier in group D than in group D-IV and group C. The sensory block and motor block duration was also prolonged in group D when compared with group D-IV and group C. The duration of analgesia was significantly longer in group D and D-IV when compared to group C. CONCLUSIONS:
Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to 0.5%ropivacaine in ultrasound guided brachial plexus block shortens the sensory as well as motor block onset time, prolongs sensory and motor block duration and also increases the duration of analgesia. The action of dexmedetomidine most probably is local rather than centrally mediated.
KEYWORDS: Dexmedetomidine; ropivacaine; supraclavicular brachial plexus block
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