miércoles, 6 de agosto de 2014

Resucitación en trauma/Trauma resucitation

Consideraciones de cuidados críticos en el manejo del paciente traumatizado después de la reanimación inicial.

Critical care considerations in the management of the trauma patient following initial resuscitation.
Shere-Wolfe RF, Galvagno SM Jr, Grissom TE.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012 Sep 18;20:68. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-68.
BACKGROUND:Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented. METHODS: A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for "damage control resuscitation" including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients.

Resucitación hemostática con plasma y plaquetas en trauma

Hemostatic resuscitation with plasma and platelets in trauma.
Johansson PI, Oliveri RS, Ostrowski SR.
J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2012 Apr;5(2):120-5. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.96479.
BACKGROUND:Continued hemorrhage remains a major contributor of mortality in massively transfused patients and controversy regarding the optimal management exists although recently, the concept of hemostatic resuscitation, i.e., providing large amount of blood products to critically injured patients in an immediate and sustained manner as part of an early massive transfusion protocol has been introduced. The aim of the present review was to investigate the potential effect on survival of proactive administration of plasma and/or platelets (PLT) in trauma patients with massive bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English databases were searched for reports of trauma patients receiving massive transfusion (10 or more red blood cell (RBC) within 24 hours or less from admission) that tested the effects of administration of plasma and/or PLT in relation to RBC concentrates on survival from January 2005 to November 2010. Comparison between highest vs lowest blood product ratios and 30-day mortality was performed. RESULTS:Sixteen studies encompassing 3,663 patients receiving high vs low ratios were included. This meta-analysis of the pooled results revealed a substantial statistical heterogeneity (I(2) = 58%) and that the highest ratio of plasma and/or PLT or to RBC was associated with a significantly decreased mortality (OR: 0.49; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.57; P<0.0001) when compared with lowest ratio. CONCLUSION:Meta-analysis of 16 retrospective studies concerning massively transfused trauma patients confirms a significantly lower mortality in patients treated with the highest fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or PLT ratio when compared with the lowest FFP and/or PLT ratio. However, optimal ranges of FFP: RBC and PLT : RBC should be established in randomized controlled trials.
KEYWORDS: Coagulopathy; FFP; RBC; damage control resuscitation; meta-analysis; platelet concentrate; transfusion ratios; trauma


Manejo actual de hemorragia masiva en trauma

Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma.
Johansson PI1, Stensballe J, Ostrowski SR.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012 Jul 9;20:47. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-47.
Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved prioritizing early control of the cause of bleeding by non-definitive means, while hemostatic control resuscitation seeks early control of coagulopathy.Hemostatic resuscitation provides transfusions with plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells in an immediate and sustained manner as part of the transfusion protocol for massively bleeding patients. Although early and effective reversal of coagulopathy is documented, the most effective means of preventing coagulopathy of massive transfusion remains debated and randomized controlled studies are lacking. Viscoelastical whole blood assays, like TEG and ROTEM however appear advantageous for identifying coagulopathy in patients with severe hemorrhage as opposed the conventional coagulation assays.In our view, patients with uncontrolled bleeding, regardless of it's cause, should be treated with hemostatic control resuscitation involving early administration of plasma and platelets and earliest possible goal-directed, based on the results of TEG/ROTEM analysis. The aim of the goal-directed therapy should be to maintain a normal hemostatic competence until surgical hemostasis is achieved, as this appears to be associated with reduced mortality.


Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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