viernes, 8 de agosto de 2014

Control de daños/Damage control

Evolución de los límites en el manejo del politrauma severo. El perfeccionamiento de los principios esenciales.

Evolving frontiers in severe poly trauma management - refining the essential principles.
Chak Wah K, Wai Man C, Janet Yuen Ha W, Lai V, Kit Shing John W.
Malays J Med Sci. 2013 Jan;20(1):1-12.
This editorial aims to refine the severe polytrauma management principles. While keeping ABCDE priorities, the termination of futile resuscitation and the early use of tourniquet to stop exsanguinating limb bleeding are crucial. Difficult-airway-management (DAM) is by a structured 5-level approach. The computerised tomography (CT) scanner is the tunnel to death for hemodynamically unstable patients. Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma-Ultrasonography (FAST USG) has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) and is expanding to USG life support. Direct whole-body multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) expedites diagnosis & treatment. Non-operative management is a viable option in rapid responders in shock. Damage control resuscitation comprising of permissive hypotension, hemostatic resuscitation & damage control surgery (DCS) help prevent the lethal triad of trauma. Massive transfusion protocol reduces mortality and decreases the blood requirement. DCS attains rapid correction of the deranged physiology. Mortality reduction in major pelvic disruption requires a multi-disciplinary protocol, the novel pre-peritoneal pelvic packing and the angio-embolization. When operation is the definitive treatment for injury, prevention is best therapy.
KEYWORDS:computerised axial tomogram; damage control resuscitation; difficult airway mangement; peritoneal pelvic packing; prevention; trauma; ultrasonography

Eficacia y seguridad de la terapia de presión peritoneal negativa activa para reducir la respuesta sistémica inflamatoria después de laparatomía para control de daños

Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Roberts DJ, Jenne CN, Ball CG, Tiruta C, Léger C, Xiao Z, Faris PD, McBeth PB, Doig CJ, Skinner CR, Ruddell SG, Kubes P, Kirkpatrick AW.
Trials. 2013 May 16;14:141. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-141.
BACKGROUND: Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unitresuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response afterdamage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker's vacuum pack. METHODS/DESIGN: The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker's vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage controllaparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient's abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and several patient-important outcomes, including organ dysfunction measures and mortality. DISCUSSION:Results from this study will improve understanding of the effect of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy after damage control laparotomy on the inflammatory response. It will also gather necessary pilot information needed to inform design of a multicenter trial comparing clinical outcomes among patients randomized to TAC with the ABThera versus Barker's vacuum pack.

Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor
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