domingo, 5 de enero de 2014

Cesárea postmortem/Postmortem C-section

Cesárea perimortem: su papel en la mortalidad materna

Perimortem cesarean delivery: its role in maternal mortality.
Katz VL.
Semin Perinatol. 2012 Feb;36(1):68-72.

doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2011.09.013.
Since Roman times, physicians have been instructed to perform postmortem cesarean deliveries to aid in funeral rites, baptism, and in the very slim chance that a live fetus might still be within the deceased mother's womb. This procedure was disliked by physicians being called to a dying mother's bedside. As births moved to hospitals, and modern obstetrics evolved, the causes of maternal death changed from sepsis, hemorrhage, and dehydration to a greater incidence of sudden cardiac arrest from medication errors or embolism. Thus, the likelihood of delivering a viable neonate at the time of a mother's death increased. Additionally, as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) became widespread, physicians realized that during pregnancy, with the term gravid woman lying on her back, chest compressions cannot deliver sufficient cardiac output to accomplish resuscitation. Paradoxically, after a postmortem cesarean delivery is performed, effective CPR was seen to occur. Mothers were revived. Thus, the procedure was renamed the perimortem cesarean. Because brain damage begins at 5 minutes of anoxia, the procedure should be initiated at 4 minutes (the 4-minute rule) to deliver the healthiest fetus. If a mother has a resuscitatable cause of death, then her life may be saved as well by a prompt and timelycesarean delivery during CPR. Sadly, too often, we are paralyzed by the horror of the maternal cardiac arrest, and instinctively, we try CPR for too long before turning to the perimortem delivery. The quick procedure though may actually improve the situation for the mother, and certainly will save the child.

Cesárea postmortem y perimortem: ¿Cuales son las indicaciones?

Postmortem and perimortem caesarean section: what are the indications?
Whitten M, Irvine LM.
J R Soc Med. 2000 Jan;93(1):6-9.

Evolución desfavorable en PTT asociada al embarazo que requiere cesárea postmortem. Informe de caso

Unfavorable course in pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura necessitating a perimortem Cesarean section: a case report.
González-Mesa E, Narbona I, Blasco M, Cohen I.
J Med Case Rep. 2013 Apr 29;7(1):119. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-7-119.
INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a type of occlusive thrombotic microangiopathy that is not specific to pregnancy but occurs with an increased frequency during it. Prognosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura greatly depends on early diagnosis and treatment. As delivery does not generally cause resolution of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, pregnancy termination is not initially considered, especially under 34 weeks, although it may be required under some conditions such as preeclampsia. Plasma therapy, including plasmapheresis, and steroids are used for treatment. In the event of an unfavorable course leading to cardiopulmonary arrest, effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures greatly depends on an early start of such measures. In pregnant patients, not only rapid implementation of these measures is required, but a decision should also be taken about the convenience of fetal delivery through a perimortem Cesarean section. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a 30-year-old primigravida white woman in week 28 of pregnancy that had a rapidly deteriorating course leading to cardiopulmonary arrest and an emergency perimortem Cesarean section resulting in fetal survival but maternal death. The patient was asymptomatic at admission and such an unfavorable evolution was initially unexpected. Analytical findings were treated with fresh frozen plasma and methylprednisolone but they did not improve. Plasmapheresis was considered but cardiac arrest rapidly ensued.
CONCLUSIONS:Despite the low prevalence of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, the finding in a pregnant woman of the triad consisting of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neurological changes should guide clinical diagnosis, and should prompt measurement of the metalloprotease ADAMTS-13 in order to rule out or confirm diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and evaluate the best therapeutic option. If cardiopulmonary arrest occurs in a woman with a gestational age of more than 24 weeks, a perimortem Cesarean section is advised if the patient has not recovered her pulse after the first four minutes.

Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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