lunes, 13 de marzo de 2017

Sangrado en trauma / Coagulopathy in trauma

Marzo 13, 2017. No. 2627







Componentes hemáticos en el manejo de la coagulopatía por trauma. Revisión sistemática de la literatura del TUG
Blood Component Therapy and Coagulopathy in Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Literature from the Trauma Update Group.
PLoS One. 2016 Oct 3;11(10):e0164090. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164090. eCollection 2016.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration). Randomized controlled trials were selected along with observational studies that used a multivariable approach to adjust for confounding. Strict criteria were adopted for quality assessment based on a two-step approach. First, we rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Then, this rating was downgraded if other three criteria were not met: high reporting quality according to shared standards, absence of internal methodological and statistical issues not detailed by the GRADE system, and absence of external validity issues. RESULTS: With few exceptions, the GRADE rating, reporting and methodological quality of observational studies was "very low", with frequent external validity issues. The only two randomized trials retrieved were, instead, of high quality. Only weak evidence was found for a relation between coagulopathy and mortality. Very weak evidence was found supporting the use of fibrinogen administration to reduce mortality in trauma. On the other hand, we found high evidence that the use of 1:1 vs. 1:2 high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios failed to obtain a 12% mortality reduction. This does not exclude lower mortality rates, which have not been investigated. The use of tranexamic acid in trauma was supported by "high" quality evidence according to the GRADE classification but was downgraded to "moderate" for external validity issues. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing mortality in trauma. The other transfusion practices we investigated have been inadequately studied in the literature, as well as the independent association between mortality and coagulopathy measured with traditional laboratory testing. Overall, in this field of research literature quality is poor.

Ácido tranexámico en el sangrado por trauma. Beneficios y daño
Tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploration of benefits and harms.
Trials. 2017 Jan 31;18(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1750-1.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The CRASH-2 trial showed that tranexamic acid (TXA) administration reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients. However, the effect appeared to depend on how soon after injury TXA treatment was started. Treatment within 3 h reduced bleeding deaths whereas treatment after 3 h increased the risk. We examine how patient characteristics vary by time to treatment and explore whether any such variations explain the time-dependent treatment effect. METHODS: Exploratory analysis were carried out, including per-protocol analyses, of data from the CRASH-2 trial, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effect of TXA on mortality in 20,211 trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding. ...... CONCLUSIONS: The time-dependent effect of TXA in bleeding trauma patients is not explained by the type of injury, the presence or absence of head injury or systolic blood pressure. When given within 3 h of injury, TXA reduces death due to bleeding regardless of type of injury, GCS or blood pressure.

Curso sobre Anestesia en Trasplantes, Cirugía abdominal, Plástica, Oftalmología y Otorrinolaringología.
Committee for European Education in Anaesthesiology (CEEA) 
y el Colegio de Anestesiólogos de León A.C.
Abril 7-9, 2017, León Guanajuato, México

Informes  (477) 716 06 16, kikinhedz@gmail.com
Vacante para Anestesiología Pediátrica
Hospital de Especialidades Pediátrico de León, Guanajuato  México 
Informes con la Dra Angélica García Álvarez 
angy.coachanestped@gmail.com o al teléfono 477 101 8700 Ext 1028
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Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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