lunes, 20 de febrero de 2017

Anestesia epidural / Epidural anesthesia

Febrero 19, 2017. No. 2605


Imágenes in vivo del espacio epidural con tomografía de coherencia óptica bidimensional y tridimensional en un modelo porcino.
In vivo images of the epidural space with two- and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a porcine model.
PLoS One. 2017 Feb 14;12(2):e0172149. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172149. eCollection 2017.
BACKGROUND: No reports exist concerning in vivo optical coherence tomography visualization of the epidural space and the blood patch process in the epidural space. In this study, we produced real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional images of the epidural space by using optical coherence tomography in a porcine model. We also aimed to produce three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images of the dura puncture and blood patch process. METHODS: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were obtained using a swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. Four laboratory pigs were intubated and ventilated after the induction of general anesthesia. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was used as a tunnel for the optical coherence tomography probe to the epidural space. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction optical coherence tomography images of the epidural space were acquired in four stages. RESULTS: In stage 1, real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the lumbar and thoracic epidural space were successfully acquired. In stage 2, the epidural catheter in the epidural space was successfully traced in the 3D optical coherence tomography images. In stage 3, water injection and lumbar puncture were successfully monitored in all study animals. In stage 4, 10 mL of fresh blood was injected into the epidural space and two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were successfully acquired. CONCLUSIONS: These animal experiments suggest the potential capability of using an optical coherence tomography-based imaging needle in the directed two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization of the epidural space. More investigations involving humans are required before optical coherence tomography can be recommended for routine use. However, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography may provide a novel, minimally invasive, and safe way to observe the spinal epidural space, epidural catheter, lumbar puncture hole, and blood patch.

Neumoencéfalo después de punción dural inadvertida. Un caso con presentación neurológica inusual
Pneumocephalus Following Unidentified Dural Puncture: A Case Report with an Unusual Neurological Presentation.
Pain Physician. 2017 Feb;20(2):E329-E334.
Pneumocephalus is a rare consequence of epidural anesthesia, which may occur following inadvertent or unidentified dural puncture when the loss of resistance to air technique is applied to identify the epidural space. Headache is the most common symptom presented in this condition, usually with sudden onset. This case report describes an unusual presentation of diffuse pneumocephalus after an unidentified dural puncture. The patient (male, 67 years old) was submitted to epidural catheter placement for the treatment of acute exacerbation of ischemic chronic pain using loss of resistance to air technique. No cerebrospinal fluid or blood flashback was observed after needle withdrawal. Shortly after the intervention, the patient presented symptoms of lethargy, apathy, and hypophonia, which are not commonly associated with pneumocephalus. No motor or sensory deficits were detected. Cranial computed tomography showed air in the frontal horn of the left ventricle, subarachnoid space at interhemispheric fissure and basal cisterns, confirming the diagnosis of diffuse pneumocephalus. The patient remained under vigilance with oxygen therapy and the epidural catheter left in place. After 24 hours, cranial computed tomography showed air in the temporal and frontal horns of the left ventricle, with no air in the subarachnoid space. The patient presented no neurological signs or symptoms at this time. Although headache is the most common symptom presented in reported cases of pneumocephalus, this case shows the need for the clinician to be aware of other signs and symptoms that may be indicative of this condition, in order to properly diagnose and treat these patients.Key words: Pneumocephalus, continuous epidural analgesia, ischemic chronic pain, loss-of-resistance to air technique, dural puncture, headache, unusual presentation.

Comparación de las técnicas para la identificación del espacio epidural utilizando la técnica de pérdida de resistencia o una jeringa automatizada - resultados de un estudio aleatorizado doble ciego.
Comparison of the techniques for the identification of the epidural space using the loss-of-resistance technique or an automated syringe - results of a randomized double-blind study.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther. 2016;48(4):228-233. doi: 10.5603/AIT.2016.0047.
BACKGROUND: The conventional, loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space is highly dependent on the anaesthetist's personal experience and is susceptible to technical errors. Therefore, an alternative, automated technique was devised to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional method. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of epidural space identification and the complication rate between the two groups - the automatic syringe and conventional loss of resistance methods. METHODS: 47 patients scheduled for orthopaedic and gynaecology procedures under epidural anaesthesia were enrolled into the study. The number of attempts, ease of epidural space identification, complication rate and the patients' acceptance regarding the two techniques were evaluated. RESULTS: The majority of blocks were performed by trainee anaesthetists (91.5%). No statistical difference was found between the number of needle insertion attempts (1 vs. 2), the efficacy of epidural anaesthesia or the number of complications between the groups. The ease of epidural space identification, as assessed by an anaesthetist, was significantly better (P = 0.011) in the automated group (87.5% vs. 52.4%). A similar number of patients (92% vs. 94%) in both groups stated they would accept epidural anaesthesia in the future. CONCLUSION: The automated and loss of resistance methods of epidural space identification were proved to be equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety. Since the use of the automated technique may facilitate epidural space identification, it may be regarded as useful technique for anaesthetists inexperienced in epidural anaesthesia, or for trainees.
KEYWORDS: automatic identification; epidural anaesthesia; epidural space; identification; loss-ofresistance technique

Aire versus salino en la técnica de resistencia para identificación del espacio epidural
Air versus saline in the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 18;(7):CD008938. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008938.pub2.
BACKGROUND: The success of epidural anaesthesia depends on correct identification of the epidural space. For several decades, the decision of whether to use air or physiological saline during the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space has been governed by the personal experience of the anaesthesiologist. Epidural block remains one of the main regional anaesthesia techniques. It is used for surgical anaesthesia, obstetrical analgesia, postoperative analgesia and treatment of chronic pain and as a complement to general anaesthesia. The sensation felt by the anaesthesiologist from the syringe plunger with loss of resistance is different when air is compared with saline (fluid). Frequently fluid allows a rapid change from resistance to non-resistance and increased movement of the plunger. However, the ideal technique for identification of the epidural space remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: * To evaluate the efficacy and safety of both air and saline in the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space.* To evaluate complications related to the air or saline injected. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS) (from inception to September 2013). We applied no language restrictions. The date of the most recent search was 7 September 2013. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (quasi-RCTs) on air and saline in the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included in the review seven studies with a total of 852 participants. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally ranked as showing low risk of bias in most domains, with the exception of one study, which did not mask participants. We were able to include data from 838 participants in the meta-analysis. We found no statistically significant differences between participants receiving air and those given saline in any of the outcomes evaluated: inability to locate the epidural space (three trials, 619 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.31, low-quality evidence); accidental intravascular catheter placement (two trials, 223 participants) (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.45, low-quality evidence); accidental subarachnoid catheter placement (four trials, 682 participants) (RR 2.95, 95% CI 0.12 to 71.90, low-quality evidence); combined spinal epidural failure (two trials, 400 participants) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.18, low-quality evidence); unblocked segments (five studies, 423 participants) (RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.72 to 3.85); and pain measured by VAS (two studies, 395 participants) (mean difference (MD) -0.09, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.18). With regard to adverse effects, we found no statistically significant differences between participants receiving air and those given saline in the occurrence of paraesthesias (three trials, 572 participants) (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.15); difficulty in advancing the catheter (two trials, 227 participants) (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.56); catheter replacement (two trials, 501 participants) (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.83); and postdural puncture headache (one trial, 110 participants) (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.12 to 5.71).
Low-quality evidence shows that results do not differ between air and saline in terms of the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space and reduction of complications. Applicability might be compromised, as most of the results described in this review were obtained from parturient patients. This review underlines the need to conduct well-designed trials in this field. 
5to curso internacional Anestesiologia cardiotoracica_ vascular_ ecocardiografia y circulaci_n extracorporea.

Curso sobre Anestesia en Trasplantes, Cirugía abdominal, Plástica, Oftalmología y Otorrinolaringología.
Committee for European Education in Anaesthesiology (CEEA) 
y el Colegio de Anestesiólogos de León A.C.
Abril 7-9, 2017, León Guanajuato, México

Informes  (477) 716 06 16,
4° Congreso Internacional de Control Total de la Vía Aérea
Asociación Mexicana de Vía  Aérea Difícil, AC
Ciudad de México 21, 22 y 23 de Abril 2017
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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