lunes, 16 de enero de 2017

Obstetricia / Obstetrics

Enero 16, 2017. No. 2571



 Alteraciones de la coagulación en el embarazo
Disorders of coagulation in pregnancy.
Br J Anaesth. 2015 Dec;115 Suppl 2:ii75-88. doi: 10.1093/bja/aev374.
Abstract
The process of haemostasis is complex and is further complicated in the parturient because of the physiological changes of pregnancy. Understanding these changes and the impact that they have on the safety profile of the anaesthetic options for labour and delivery is crucial to any anaesthetist caring for the parturient. This article analyses current theories on coagulation and reviews the physiological changes to coagulation that occur during pregnancy and the best methods with which to evaluate coagulation. Finally, we examine some of the more common disorders of coagulation that occur during pregnancy, including von Willebrand disease, common factor deficiencies, platelet disorders, the parturient on anticoagulants, and the more
KEYWORDS: blood coagulation disorders; epidural anaesthesia; pregnancy; spinal anaesthesia
 Intubación traqueal fallida en anestesia obstétrica. Revisión de la literatura
Failed tracheal intubation during obstetric general anaesthesia: a literature review.
Int J Obstet Anesth. 2015 Nov;24(4):356-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2015.06.008. Epub 2015 Jun 30.
Abstract
We reviewed the literature on obstetric failed tracheal intubation from 1970 onwards. The incidence remained unchanged over the period at 2.6 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.2) per 1000 anaesthetics (1 in 390) for obstetric general anaesthesia and 2.3 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.9) per 1000 general anaesthetics (1 in 443) for caesarean section. Maternal mortality from failed intubation was 2.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 8.2) per 100000 general anaesthetics for caesarean section (one death per 90 failed intubations). Maternal deaths occurred from aspiration or hypoxaemia secondary to airway obstruction or oesophageal intubation. There were 3.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 9.9) front-of-neck airway access procedures (surgical airway) per 100000 general anaesthetics for caesarean section (one procedure per 60 failed intubations), usually carried out as a late rescue attempt with poor maternal outcomes. Before the late 1990s, most cases were awakened after failed intubation; since the late 1990s, general anaesthesia has been continued in the majority of cases. When general anaesthesia was continued, a laryngeal mask was usually used but with a trend towards use of a second-generation supraglottic airway device. A prospective study of obstetric general anaesthesia found that transient maternal hypoxaemia occurred in over two-thirds of cases of failed intubation, usually without sequelae. Pulmonary aspiration occurred in 8% but the rate of maternal intensive care unit admission after failed intubation was the same as that after uneventful general anaesthesia. Poor neonatal outcomes were often associated with preoperative fetal compromise, although failed intubation and lowest maternal oxygen saturation were independent predictors of neonatal intensive care unit admission.
KEYWORDS: Failed intubation; General anaesthesia; Obstetric anaesthesia
 Cambios fisiológicos en el embarazo
Physiological changes in pregnancy.
Cardiovasc J Afr. 2016 Mar-Apr;27(2):89-94. doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2016-021.
Abstract
Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

5to Curso Internacional de Anestesiología cardiotorácica, vascular, ecocardiografía y circulación extracorpórea. SMACT
Mayo 4-6, 2017, Ciudad de México
Informes Dr. Hugo Martínez Espinoza bajamed@hotmail.com 
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
California Society of Anesthesiologists
Annual Meeting April 27-30, 2017
San Francisco California
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