viernes, 5 de junio de 2015

Más sobre cannabis/More on cannabis

Riesgos asociados con el uso no médico de cannabis
Risks associated with the non-medicinal use of cannabis.
Hoch E, Bonnetn U, Thomasius R, Ganzer F, Havemann-Reinecke U, Preuss UW.
Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2015 Apr 17;112(16):271-8. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2015.0271.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug around the world; in Germany, about 4.5% of all adults use it each year. Intense cannabis use is associated with health risks. Evidence-based treatments are available for health problems caused by cannabis use. METHODS: Selective literature review based on a search of the PubMed database, with special emphasis on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case-control studies, and treatment guidelines. RESULTS: The delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol content of cannabis products is rising around the world as a result of plant breeding, while cannabidiol, in contrast, is often no longer detectable. Various medical conditions can arise acutely after cannabis use, depending on the user's age, dose, frequency, mode and situation of use, and individual disposition; these include panic attacks, psychotic symptoms, deficient attention, impaired concentration, motor incoordination, and nausea. In particular, intense use of high doses of cannabis over many years, and the initiation of cannabis use in adolescence, can be associated with substance dependence (DSM-5; ICD-10), specific withdrawal symptoms, cognitive impairment, affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders, and physical disease outside the brain (mainly respiratory and cardiovascular conditions). At present, the most effective way to treat cannabis dependence involves a combination of motivational encouragement, cognitive behavioral therapy, and contingency management (level 1a evidence). For adolescents, family therapy is also recommended (level 1a evidence). No pharmacological treatments can be recommended to date, as evidence for their efficacy is lacking. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to elucidate the causal relationships between intense cannabis use and potential damage to physical and mental health. Health problems due to cannabis use can be effectively treated.
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Los efectos potenciales de cannabidiol como un agente "promotor de la atención"
Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent.
Murillo-Rodríguez E, Sarro-Ramírez A, Sánchez D, Mijangos-Moreno S, Tejeda-Padrón A, Poot-Aké A, Guzmán K, Pacheco-Pantoja E, Arias-Carrión O.
Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014 May;12(3):269-72. doi: 10.2174/1570159X11666131204235805.
Abstract
Over the last decades, the scientific interest in chemistry and pharmacology of cannabinoids has increased. Most attention has focused on ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) as it is the psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (C. sativa). However, in previous years, the focus of interest in the second plant constituent with non-psychotropic properties, cannabidiol (CBD) has been enhanced. Recently, several groups have investigated the pharmacological properties of CBD with significant findings; furthermore, this compound has raised promising pharmacological properties as a wake-inducing drug. In the current review, we will provide experimental evidence regarding the potential role of CBD as a wake-inducing drug.
KEYWORDS: Dopamine; hypothalamus; marijuana; sleep; sleepiness.
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