sábado, 27 de diciembre de 2014

Anemia en pacientes neurocríticos/Anemia in the neurological ICU

Hemotransfusión en pacientes con trauma cerebral. Un protocolo de revisión sistemática. 


Red blood cell transfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review protocol.
Boutin A, Chassé M, Shemilt M, Lauzier F, Moore L, Zarychanski R, Lacroix J, Fergusson DA, Desjardins P, Turgeon AF1.
Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 18;3:66. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-3-66.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a prevalent condition in critically ill patients and red blood cell transfusions are frequent. Although transfusions at low hemoglobin levels have been shown to be associated with equivalent or better outcomes than higher hemoglobin thresholds, clinical equipoise persists in patients with traumatic brain injury considering their susceptibility to secondary cerebral insults such as those from hypoxemia. METHODS: Our objectives are to estimate the frequency of red blood cell transfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury and to evaluatetransfusion thresholds, determinants and outcomes associated with transfusion strategies.We will conduct a systematic review of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of patients with traumatic brain injury. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all identified references. Studies including adult patients with traumatic brain injury reporting data on red blood cell transfusions will be eligible. We will collect data on baseline demographics, trauma characteristics, hemoglobin thresholds, bloodtransfusions and clinical outcomes (mortality, length of stay, complications, and so on). Two independent reviewers will extract data using a standardized form. We will pool cumulative incidences using DerSimonian and Lair random-effect models after a Freeman-Tukey transformation to stabilize variances. We will pool risk ratios or mean differences with random-effect models and Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance methods in order to evaluate the association between red blood cell transfusion and potential determinants or outcomes. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis according to timing of red blood cell transfusion, traumatic brain injury severity, year of conduction of the study, risk of bias, notably, are planned. DISCUSSION: We expect to observe high heterogeneity in the proportion of transfused patients across studies and that the global proportion will be similar to the frequency observed in the general medical critically ill population. Our systematic review will allow us to better describe and understand current transfusion practices in patients with traumatic brain injury, a clinical population in which liberal transfusions are still advocated in the absence of evidence-based data.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090399/pdf/2046-4053-3-66.pdf



Hemotransfusión en la UCI neurológica

Red blood cell transfusion in the neurological ICU.
Kumar MA.
Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jan;9(1):56-64. doi: 10.1007/s13311-011-0094-5.
Abstract
Red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) is a common therapy used in the intensive care unit to treat anemia. However, due to deleterious side effects and questionable efficacy, the clinical benefit of RBCT in patients who are not actively bleeding is unclear. The results of randomized controlled trials suggest there is no benefit to a liberal transfusion practice in general critical care populations. Whether the results of these trials are applicable to brain injured patients is unknown, as patients with primary neurological injury were excluded. This article reviews the efficacy and complications of RBCT, as well as the relationship between RBCT and its outcome in both the general intensive care unit and neurologically critically ill populations.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271158/pdf/13311_2011_Article_94.pdf



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Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor
www.anestesia-dolor.org

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