jueves, 25 de diciembre de 2014

Anestesia en Cesárea/Anaesthesia and C-section

Efecto de dosis sub hipnóticas de propofol y midazolam para nausea y vomito durante anestesia raquídea para cesárea 


Effect of Sub hypnotic Doses of Propofol and Midazolam for Nausea and Vomiting During Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section.
Rasooli S, Moslemi F, Khaki A.
Anesth Pain Med. 2014 Sep 16;4(4):e19384. doi: 10.5812/aapm.19384. eCollection 2014.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia has been associated with intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV), especially during cesarean section, which is attributed to several mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, therapeutic and preventive properties of sub hypnotic dose midazolam and propofol and their effects on the occurrence and severity of intraoperative nausea and vomiting during elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial, 90 parturients, ASA class I and II, aged 20-30 years, who undergone spinal anesthesia for cesarean section were randomly allocated to one of three groups receiving midazolam (1 mg bolus and 0.1 mg/kg/hr, n=30), propofol (20 mg bolus and 0.1 mg/kg/hr, n = 30), and placebo (saline, n=30) intravenously (IV) immediately after umbilical cord clamping. Bupivacaine hydrochloride (10 mg) was used for induction of the anesthesia. Patients' hemodynamics was monitored at 3-minute intervals. Furthermore, intraoperative and post-delivery emetic episodes, severity of emesis, scores of sedation and ephedrine consumption were recorded. RESULTS: The incidence of nausea, retching, and vomiting was significantly higher in the control group compared to propofol and midazolam groups. Overall, PONV (postoperative nausea and vomiting) in midazolam group was as low as propofol group without any significant hemodynamic changes as seen in placebo group or even with propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Subhypnotic doses of midazolam or propofol are effective in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during and after cesarean section with spinal anesthesia and does not significantly influence hemodynamic of the patients.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205801/pdf/aapm-04-04-19384.pdf

Efecto sobre el Apgar y evolución neonatal cambiando de combinación de fenilefrina y efedrina a fenilefrina sola como vasoconstrictor profiláctico durante raquia en cesárea

The effects on Apgar scores and neonatal outcomes of switching from a combination of phenylephrine and ephedrine to phenylephrine alone as a prophylactic vasopressor during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.
Jeon JY, Lee IH, Jee YS, Lee PM, Park SI, Yoon HJ.
Korean J Anesthesiol. 2014 Jul;67(1):38-42. doi: 10.4097/kjae.2014.67.1.38. Epub 2014 Jul 29.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ephedrine, unlike phenylephrine, has a dose-related propensity to depress fetal pH during spinal anesthesia during cesareansection. A low arterial umbilical cord pH has a strong association with neonatal mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate influences of vasopressor change on Apgar scores and adverse neonatal outcomes in cesarean section. METHODS: In obstetric anesthesia, we changed the prophylactic vasopressor from a combination of phenylephrine and ephedrine to phenylephrine alone in 2000. We evaluated the impact of vasopressor change on Apgar scores (1 and 5 min), incidence of Apgar score < 7 (1 and 5 min), neonatal seizure, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in low-risk elective cesarean sections during a period when the combination of phenylephrine and ephedrine was used (2008-2009, two years) and the period of phenylephrine use alone (2011-2012, two years). RESULTS: There were no differences in Apgar scores (1 and 5 min), the incidence of 5 min Apgar score < 7, neonatal seizure, CPAP, IPPV, IVH, PVL, and HIE between the two time periods. However, the incidence of 1 min Apgar < 7 was decreased during the period of phenylephrine use compared with the period of phenylephrine and ephedrine use (P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Conversion from a combination of phenylephrine and ephedrine to phenylephrine alone as a prophylactic anti-hypotensive drug during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in low-risk pregnancy may be associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of 1 min Apgar < 7. KEYWORDS: Apgar score; Cesarean section; Ephedrine; Neonatal outcomes; Phenylephrine; Spinal anesthesia

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4121492/pdf/kjae-67-38.pdf

Efectos pulmonares de bupivacaína y ropivacaína en parturientas bajo anestesia espinal para cesárea electiva

Pulmonary effects of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in parturients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery.
Geng G, Li W, Huang S.
Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014 May 15;7(5):1417-21. eCollection 2014.
Abstract
To study the change of maternal pulmonary function when ropivacaine and bupivacaine were used in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, 40 ASA physical status I and II parturient scheduled to undergo cesarean section were randomly divided into bupivacaine and ropivacaine groups. Bupivacaine 9 mg and ropivacaine 14 mg were intrathecal injected respectively. FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with spirometry beforeanesthesia and 2 h after intrathecal injection. Anesthesia level, the degree of motor block and VAS were also recorded. RESULTS:
The final level of sensory blockade was not different between groups. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased with bupivacaine (3.0 ± 0.4 L to 2.7 ± 0.3 L, P < 0.05) and ropivacaine (2.9 ± 0.4 L to 2.5 ± 0.4 L, P < 0.05) while there were no difference between two groups. Forced expiratory volume during the first second and Peak expiratory flow rate were not decreased in each group. The degree of motor block in group R was less than group B at 2 h after intrathecal injection. CONCLUSIONS: Decreases in maternal pulmonary function tests were similar following spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine or ropivacaine forcesarean section. The clinical maternal effects of these alterations appeared negligible.
KEYWORDS: Bupivacaine; anesthesia; cesarean-section; pulmonary function; ropivacaine

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073766/pdf/ijcem0007-1417.pdf


Influencia del momento de administración de cristaloides sobre la hipotensión materna durante raquia para cesárea. Precarga vs co-carga

Influence of the timing of administration of crystalloid on maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: preload versus coload.
Oh AY1, Hwang JW1, Song IA2, Kim MH3, Ryu JH1, Park HP4, Jeon YT1, Do SH1.
BMC Anesthesiol. 2014 May 16;14:36. doi: 10.1186/1471-2253-14-36. eCollection 2014.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:Prophylactic fluid preloading before spinal anesthesia has been a routine procedure to prevent maternal hypotension duringcesarean delivery. Unlike colloid, timing of infusion of crystalloid may be important because of its short stay in intravascular space. We hypothesized that crystalloid loading just after intrathecal injection compared to preload would be more effective in preventing maternal hypotension......

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052336/pdf/1471-2253-14-36.pdf


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