sábado, 9 de noviembre de 2013

Cuidado prehospitalario del trauma

Fase de implementación de un sistema multicéntrico prehospitalario de apoyo a paramédicos: posibilidades y viabilidad

Implementation phase of a multicentre prehospital telemedicine system to support paramedics: feasibility and possible limitations.
Bergrath S, Czaplik M, Rossaint R, Hirsch F, Beckers SK, Valentin B, Wielpütz D, Schneiders MT, Brokmann JC.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany. sbergrath@ukaachen.de
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013 Jul 11;21:54. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-54.
BACKGROUND: Legal regulations often limit the medical care that paramedics can provide. Telemedical solutions could overcome these limitations by remotely providing expert support. Therefore, a mobile telemedicine system to support paramedics was developed. During the implementation phase of this system in four German emergency medical services (EMS), the feasibility and possible limitations of this system were evaluated. METHODS:After obtaining ethical approval and providing a structured training program for all medical professionals, the system was implemented on three paramedic-staffed ambulances on August 1st, 2012. Two more ambulances were included subsequently during this month. The paramedics could initiate a consultation with EMS physicians at a teleconsultation centre. Telemedical functionalities included audio communication, real-time vital data transmission, 12-lead electrocardiogram, picture transmission on demand, and video streaming from a camera embedded into the ceiling of each ambulance. After each consultation, telephone-based debriefings were conducted. Data were retrieved from the documentation protocols of the teleconsultation centre and the EMS. RESULTS: During a one month period, teleconsultations were conducted during 35 (11.8%) of 296 emergency missions with a mean duration of 24.9 min (SD 12.5). Trauma, acute coronary syndromes, and circulatory emergencies represented 20 (57%) of the consultation cases. Diagnostic support was provided in 34 (97%) cases, and the administration of 50 individual medications, including opioids, was delegated by the teleconsultation centre to the paramedics in 21 (60%) missions (range: 1-7 per mission). No medical complications or negative interpersonal effects were reported. All applications functioned as expected except in one case in which the connection failed due to the lack of a viable mobile network. CONCLUSION: The feasibility of the telemedical approach was demonstrated. Teleconsultation enabled early initiation of treatments by paramedics operating under the real-time medical direction. Teleconsultation can be used to provide advanced care until the patient is under a physician's care; moreover, it can be used to support the paramedics who work alone to provide treatment in non-life-threatening cases. Non-availability of mobile networks may be a relevant limitation. A larger prospective controlled trial is needed to evaluate the rate of complications and outcome effects.

La adherencia a las guías y protocolos en el ámbito de la atención pre-hospitalaria y de emergencia: una revisión sistemática.

Adherence to guidelines and protocols in the prehospital and emergency care setting: a systematic review.
Ebben RH, Vloet LC, Verhofstad MH, Meijer S, Mintjes-de Groot JA, van Achterberg T.
Research group for Acute Care, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, HAN University of Applied Sciences, Verlengde Groenestraat 75, Nijmegen 6525 EJ, The Netherlands. Remco.Ebben@han.nl
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013 Feb 19;21:9. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-9.
A gap between guidelines or protocols and clinical practice often exists, which may result in patients not receiving appropriate care. Therefore, the objectives of this systematic review were (1) to give an overview of professionals' adherence to (inter)national guidelines and protocols in the emergency medical dispatch, prehospital and emergency department (ED) settings, and (2) to explore which factors influencing adherence were described in studies reporting on adherence. PubMed (including MEDLINE), CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane database for systematic reviews were systematically searched. Reference lists of included studies were also searched for eligible studies. Identified articles were screened on title, abstract and year of publication (≥1990) and were included when reporting on adherence in the eligible settings. Following the initial selection, articles were screened full text and included if they concerned adherence to a (inter)national guideline or protocol, and if the time interval between data collection and publication date was <10 years. Finally, articles were assessed on reporting quality. Each step was undertaken by two independent researchers. Thirty-five articles met the criteria, none of these addressed the emergency medical dispatch setting or protocols. Median adherence ranged from 7.8-95% in the prehospital setting, and from 0-98% in the ED setting. In the prehospital setting, recommendations on monitoring came with higher median adherence percentages than treatment recommendations. For both settings, cardiology treatment recommendations came with relatively low median adherence percentages. Eight studies identified patient and organisational factors influencing adherence. The results showed that professionals' adherence to (inter)national prehospital and emergency department guidelines shows a wide variation, while adherence in the emergency medical dispatch setting is not reported. As insight in influencing factors for adherence in the emergency care settings is minimal, future research should identify such factors to allow the development of strategies to improve adherence and thus improve quality of care.
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