jueves, 15 de febrero de 2018

Más sobre adicciones / More on addictions

Febrero 15, 2018. No. 2995
Sustratos biológicos de las adicciones
Biological substrates of addiction.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci. 2014 Mar;5(2):151-171. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1273. Epub 2014 Jan 14.
Abstract
This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse; however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit, and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation, and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function, and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography, and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:151-171. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1273 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Dependencia química y el médico.
Chemical dependency and the physician.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Jul;84(7):625-31. doi: 10.1016/S0025-6196(11)60751-9.
Abstract
Although the nature and scope of addictive disease are commonly reported in the lay press, the problem of physician addiction has largely escaped the public's attention. This is not due to physician immunity from the problem, because physicians have been shown to have addiction at a rate similar to or higher than that of the general population. Additionally, physicians' addictive disease (when compared with the general public) is typically advanced before identification and intervention. This delay in diagnosis relates to physicians' tendency to protect their workplace performance and image well beyond the time when their life outside of work has deteriorated and become chaotic. We provide an overview of the scope and risks of physician addiction, the challenges of recognition and intervention, the treatment of the addicted physician, the ethical and legal implications of an addicted physician returning to the workplace, and their monitored aftercare. It is critical that written policies for dealing with workplace addiction are in place at every employment venue and that they are followed to minimize risk of an adverse medical or legal outcome and to provide appropriate care to the addicted physician.
Abuso de Drogas, Adicción y Dependencia
Drug Abuse, Addiction and Dependence
Alewu Benjamin1 and Nosiri Chidi
Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Edited by Sivakumar Joghi Thatha Gowder, ISBN 978-953-51-1620-2, 356 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published July 02, 2014 under CC BY 3.0 license
Introduction
Before the dawn of civilization, they are natural substances that were discovered e.g euphoria's, narcotics, hallucinogens, excitants. Some of these were used by farmers. In fact, there were dope addict long before they were farmers. There are certain drives that persuade or compel somebody to resort to drug to obtain vacation from intolerable selfhood. One of the principal appetite of the soul is the urge to escape if for a few seconds the painful aspect of life, acquisition of wealth which may not be forthcoming. The distinguishing facts between legitimate use of drug for social purpose and their abuse are not certain if not indistinct. It is not a matter of which drug but the amount taken and if directed anti-socially or not. For instance normal people use alcohol for their occasional purpose without harm but, here there is appropriate degree of mental abnormality to the individual and the society as well. These people may then depend on it physically or emotionally.
Safe Anaesthesia Worldwide
Delivering safe anaesthesia to the world's poorest people
World Congress on Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
April 19-21, 2018, New York City, USA
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