martes, 13 de febrero de 2018

Peyote y otros alucinógenos / Peyote and other hallucinogens

Febrero 13, 2018. No. 2993
El Peyote y otros cactos alucinógenos de México
Batis A, Rojas M.
Biodiversitas 2002
EN LA AMÉRICAINDÍGENA, el empleo de plantas alucinógenas se presenta como una costumbre de profundo arraigo y antigüedad milenaria. El continente americano es el espacio geográfico donde se ha registrado la mayor diversidad de plantas que contienen principios psicoactivos (más de 100 especies). Estas plantas contienen sustancias químicas -alcaloides- capaces de promover estados anormales de conciencia que ocasionan alteraciones visuales, auditivas, táctiles, olfativas e incluso gustativas. Por esta razón son vistas por algunas culturas como portadoras de inteligencia y son consideradas instru
El "Viaje interminable" entre los usuarios de nuevas sustancias psicoactivas: psicopatología y psicofarmacología en el trastorno de percepción persistente del alucinógeno. Una revisión sistemática.
The "Endless Trip" among the NPS Users: Psychopathology and Psychopharmacology in the Hallucinogen-Persisting Perception Disorder. A Systematic Review.
Front Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 20;8:240. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00240. eCollection 2017.
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD. Symptomatology mainly comprises visual disorders (i.e., geometric pseudo-hallucinations, haloes, flashes of colors/lights, motion-perception deficits, afterimages, micropsia, more acute awareness of floaters, etc.), even though depressive symptoms and thought disorders may be comorbidly present. Although HPPD was first described in 1954, it was just established as a fully syndrome in 2000, with the revised fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). HPPD neural substrates, risk factors, and aetiopathogenesys still largely remain unknown and under investigation, and many questions about its pharmacological targets remain unanswered too. A critical mini review on psychopathological bases, etiological hypothesis, and psychopharmacological approaches toward HPPD, including the association with some novel substances, are provided here, by means of a literature search on PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases without time restrictions, by using a specific set of keywords. Pharmacological and clinical issues are considered, and practical psychopharmacological recommendations and clinical guidelines are suggested.
KEYWORDS: flashbacks; hallucinations; hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder; hallucinogens; novel psychoactive substances; palinopsia
La etnobotánica del uso de plantas psicoactivas: una perspectiva filogenética.
The ethnobotany of psychoactive plant use: a phylogenetic perspective.
PeerJ. 2016 Oct 5;4:e2546. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2546. eCollection 2016.
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful. A phylogeny of culturally diverse psychoactive plant taxa was constructed with their psychotropic effects and affected neurotransmitter systems mapped on the phylogeny. The phylogenetic distribution shows multiple evolutionary origins of psychoactive families. The plant families Myristicaceae (e.g., nutmeg), Papaveraceae (opium poppy), Cactaceae (peyote), Convolvulaceae (morning glory), Solanaceae (tobacco), Lamiaceae (mints), Apocynaceae (dogbane) have a disproportionate number of psychoactive genera with various indigenous groups using geographically disparate members of these plant families for the same psychoactive effect, an example of cultural convergence. Pharmacological traits related to hallucinogenic and sedative potential are phylogenetically conserved within families. Unrelated families that exert similar psychoactive effects also modulate similar neurotransmitter systems (i.e., mechanistic convergence). However, pharmacological mechanisms for stimulant effects were varied even within families suggesting that stimulant chemicals may be more evolutionarily labile than those associated with hallucinogenic and sedative effects. Chemically similar psychoactive chemicals may also exist in phylogenetically unrelated lineages, suggesting convergent evolution or differential gene regulation of a common metabolic pathway. Our study has shown that phylogenetic analysis of traditionally used psychoactive plants suggests multiple ethnobotanical origins and widespread human dependence on these plants, motivating pharmacological investigation into their potential as modern therapeutics for various neurological disorders.
KEYWORDS: Drug discovery; Ethnopharmacology; Evolutionary ethnobotany; Neuropsychopharmacology; Psychotropic; Traditional medicine
Avances recientes en la neuropsicofarmacología de los alucinógenos serotoninérgicos.
Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens.
Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jan 15;277:99-120. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.016. Epub 2014 Jul 15.
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and mescaline, are somewhat enigmatic substances. Although these drugs are derived from multiple chemical families, they all produce remarkably similar effects in animals and humans, and they show cross-tolerance. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is the primary site of hallucinogen action. The 5-HT2A receptor is responsible for mediating the effects of hallucinogens in human subjects, as well as in animal behavioral paradigms such as drug discrimination, head twitch response, prepulse inhibition of startle, exploratory behavior, and interval timing. Many recent clinical trials have yielded important new findings regarding the psychopharmacology of these substances. Furthermore, the use of modern imaging and electrophysiological techniques is beginning to help unravel how hallucinogens work in the brain. Evidence is also emerging that hallucinogens may possess therapeutic efficacy.
KEYWORDS: 5-HT2A receptor; Head twitch; Prefrontal cortex; Psychedelic; Visual effects
Charcot, Mitchell y Lees: pensadores libres de neurología y sus experiencias con drogas psicoactivas.
Charcot, Mitchell and Lees: neurology free thinkers and their experiences of psychoactive drugs.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2016 Dec;74(12):1035-1038. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20160160.
Three world-famous neurologists, Charcot and Mitchell, in the 19th century, and Lees, in this century, all of whom had great scientific curiosity, experimented with the psychoactive drugs hashish, mescal and yagé, respectively, in an attempt to increase their knowledge of neurological diseases and how the brain works.
Safe Anaesthesia Worldwide
Delivering safe anaesthesia to the world's poorest people
World Congress on Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
April 19-21, 2018, New York City, USA
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