viernes, 2 de enero de 2015

Transplante renal / Renal transplant

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Evaluación pulmonar preoperatoria en pacientes para transplante renal

Presurgical pulmonary evaluation in renal transplant patients.
Sahni S, Molmenti E, Bhaskaran MC, Ali N, Basu A, Talwar A.
North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2014 Dec 29];6:605-12.

Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) due to various mechanisms are prone to significant pulmonary comorbidities. With the improvements in renal replacement therapy (RRT), patients with CRF are now expected to live longer, and thus may develop complications in the lung from these processes. The preferred treatment of CRF is kidney transplantation and patients who are selected to undergo transplant must have a thorough preoperative pulmonary evaluation to assess pulmonary status and to determine risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. A MEDLINE ® /PubMed ® search was performed to identify all articles outlining the course of pre-surgical pulmonary evaluation with an emphasis on patients with CRF who have been selected for renal transplant. Literature review concluded that in addition to generic pre-surgical evaluation, renal transplant patients must also undergo a full cardiopulmonary and sleep evaluation to investigate possible existing pulmonary pathologies. Presence of any risk factor should then be aggressively managed or treated prior to surgery.

Keywords: Pre-surgical evaluation, Pulmonary complications, Pulmonary evaluation, Pulmonary hypertension, Renal transplant

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Enfermedad coronaria en pacientes con falla renal crónica. Actualización clínica

Coronary artery disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: a clinical update.
Cai Q, Mukku VK, Ahmad M1.
Curr Cardiol Rev. 2013 Nov;9(4):331-9.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. The outcomes of CAD are poorer in patients with CKD. In addition to traditional risk factors, several uremia-related risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery calcification, hyperhomocysteinemia, and immunosuppressants have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. A number of uremia-related biomarkers are identified as predictors of cardiac outcomes in CKD patients. The symptoms of CAD may not be typical in patients with CKD. Both dobutamine stress echocardiography and radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging have moderate sensitivity and specificity in detecting obstructive CAD in CKD patients. Invasive coronary angiography carries a risk of contrast nephropathy in patients with advanced CKD. It should be reserved for those patients with a high risk for CAD and those who would benefit from revascularization. Guideline-recommended therapies are, in general, underutilized in renal patients. Medical therapy should be considered the initial strategy for clinically stable CAD. The effects of statins in patients with advanced CKD have been neutral despite a lipid-lowering effect. Compared to non-CKD population, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with higher procedure complications, restenosis, and future cardiac events even in the drug-eluting stent era in patients with CKD. Compared with PCI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) reduces repeat revascularizations but is associated with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. Screening for CAD is an important part of preoperative evaluation for kidney transplant candidates.

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Anestesia general poco después de diálisis puede aumentar hipotensión postoperatoria. Estudio piloto
General anesthesia soon after dialysis may increase postoperative hypotension - A pilot study.
Deng J, Lenart J, Applegate RL.
Heart Lung Vessel. 2014;6(1):52-9.

INTRODUCTION: Pilot study associating hemodialysis-to-general-anesthesia time interval and post-operative complications in hemodialysis patientsto better define a more optimal pre-anesthetic waiting period. METHODS: Pre-anesthetic and 48-hours post-anesthetic parameters (age, gender, body-mass-index, pre-operative ultrafiltrate, potassium, renaldisease etiology, hemodialysis sessions per week, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, Portsmouth-Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, Johns Hopkins Surgical Classification System Category, surgical urgency, intra-operative fluids, estimated blood loss, post-operative complications) were collected on chronic hemodialysis patients between 11/2009-12/2010. Continuous data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance or t-test. Bivariate data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test. Relative Risks/Confidence Intervals were calculated for statistically significant comparisons (p=0.05). Exclusion criteria were incomplete records, peritoneal dialysis, intra-operative hemodialysis, liver transplant, and cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: Patients were grouped by dialysis to anesthesia time interval: Group 1 >24 hours, Group 2 7-23.9 hours, Group 3 < 7 hours. Among Surgical Category 3-5 patients, hypotension was more common in Group 3 than Group 1 (63.6% vs 9.2%, p<0.0001, relative risk=6.9, confidence interval=3.0-15.7) or Group 2 (63.6% vs 17.3%, p=0.0002, relative risk=3.7, confidence interval=1.9-7.2). Other complications rates were not statistically significant. Disease and surgical severity scores, preoperative ultrafiltrate, and intra-operative fluids were not different. CONCLUSIONS:
Post-anesthetic hypotension within 48 hours was more common in those with < 7 hours interval between dialysis and anesthesia. Therefore, if surgical urgency permits, a delay of ≥7 hours may limit postoperative hypotension. More precise associations should be obtained through a prospective study.

KEYWORDS: anesthesia; complications; dialysis; general; hypotension; interval; post-operative; surgery; time; ultrafiltrate

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