jueves, 1 de enero de 2015

Trauma torácico / Chest trauma

Efecto de terapia antiplaquetaria antes del trauma sobre el desarrollo de complicaciones en trauma contuso aislado de la pared torácica. Estudio retrospectivo

The effect of pre-injury anti-platelet therapy on the development of complications in isolated blunt chest wall trauma: a retrospective study.
Battle C, Hutchings H, Bouamra O, Evans PA.
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 7;9(3):e91284. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091284. eCollection 2014.
INTRODUCTION:The difficulties in the management of the blunt chest wall trauma patient in the Emergency Department due to the development of late complications are well recognised in the literature. Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy has been previously investigated as a risk factor for poor outcomes following traumatic head injury, but not in the blunt chest wall trauma patient cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-injury anti-platelet therapy as a risk factor for the development of complications in the recovery phase following blunt chest wall trauma. METHODS:A retrospective study was completed in which the medical notes were analysed of all blunt chest wall trauma patients presenting to a large trauma centre in Wales in 2012 and 2013. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-injury platelet therapy was investigated as a risk factor for the development of complications following blunt chest wall trauma. Previously identified risk factors were included in the analysis to address the influence of confounding. RESULTS: A total of 1303 isolated blunt chest wall trauma patients presented to the ED in Morriston Hospital in 2012 and 2013 with complications recorded in 144 patients (11%). On multi-variable analysis, pre-injury anti-platelet therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for the development of complications following isolated blunt chest wall trauma (odds ratio: 16.9; 95% confidence intervals: 8.2-35.2). As in previous studies patient age, number of rib fractures, chronic lung disease and pre-injury anti-coagulant use were also found to be significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy is being increasingly used as a first line treatment for a number of conditions and there is a concurrent increase in trauma in the elderly population. Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy should be considered as a risk factor for the development of complications by clinicians managing blunt chest wall trauma.

Resultados de drenajes torácicos colocados en rescate aéreo.

Results of thoracic drainages placed in air rescue.
Interv Med Appl Sci. 2013 Dec;5(4):168-74. doi: 10.1556/IMAS.5.2013.4.4. Epub 2013 Dec 20.

Schupfner R, Wagner W, Schneller A.


INTRODUCTION: horax injuries are to be found in approximately 78% amongst all accident victims. Moreover, they implicate an increase in mortality rate. Consequently, an adequate contemporary treatment has to begin preclinically, even if the conditions are less comfortable than in a clinical setting. Emergency doctors need to be familiar with the placement of chest tubes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010, emergency doctors of the rescue helicopter site Christoph 20 had to place chest tubes directly at the scene of an accident in 49 patients. These patients were now reidentified, and their clinical course was reevaluated. By means of apparative diagnostics, it was possible to analyze the location of the tubes tip. Following a comparison of the patient, outcome versus the quality of preclinical thoracic discharge could be made. RESULTS: The preclinical placement of a chest tube became necessary mainly because of a blunt thoracic trauma. This was predominantly related to victims of traffic accidents, whereas male victims clearly dominated. Forty-two of those patients received further treatment at the Klinikum Bayreuth hospital, enabling an analysis of the tubes location by CAT (computed axial tomography) scan. Six patients had been discharged on both sides, contributing to 48 tube tips that could be examined concerning their location. Of the 48 chest tubes, 46 had been placed from a lateral approach. The ventral access by Monaldi had only been chosen in two cases. Altogether, nine incorrect placements, mainly within the right interlobe gap, had been detected. CONCLUSIONS: The study collective showed a significant preference to the lateral approach when placing a chest tube at the emergency scene of an accident. In total, a prevalence of 19% incorrect placements could be revealed, meaning the chest tube had either been placed within the lung parenchyma, the interlobe gap, or extrathoracically. Concerning the patient outcome, no statistically significant difference regarding the clinical course after incorrect chest tube placement could be identified.
KEYWORDS:air rescue; chest tube; pneumothorax; preclinical application of a thoracic drain; thoracic trauma


Manejo del trauma de tórax en el servicio de emergencias. Análisis de 1139 casos

Management of thoracic trauma in emergency service: Analysis of 1139 cases.
Dongel I, Coskun A, Ozbay S, Bayram M, Atli B.
Pak J Med Sci. 2013 Jan;29(1):58-63. doi: 10.12669/pjms.291.2704.
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic trauma is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. This study presents a series of thoracic trauma with the aim to assess epidemiologic features, distribution of pathologies, additional systemic injuries, diagnosis, management and outcome. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2007 and December 2011, all patients with thorax trauma admitted to the emergency service of our hospital were retrospectively reviewed with respect to age, gender, etiological factors, distribution of pathologies, additional systemic injuries, diagnosis, treatment modalities, referral and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 1139 patients with thorax trauma were included in the study. Of these, 698 (61.3%) were male and 441 (38.7%) were female, and the average age was 54.17±17.39 years. 1090 (95.7%) of the patients had blunt trauma, whereas 49 (4.3%) had penetrating trauma. Etiological factors were falls in 792 (69.5%), motor vehicle accidents in 259 (22.8%), animal related accidents in 39 (3.4%) and penetrating injuries in 49 (4.2%) patients. It was found that 229 (20%) patients had single, 101 (8.9%) had double, 5 (3%) had three or more, 10 (0.9%) had bilateral rib fractures and 19 (1.7%) had sternal fracture. Pneumothorax was diagnosed in 58 (5.1%) patients, whereas hemothorax, hemopneuomothorax and other systeminjuries were diagnosed in 36 (3.2%), 38(3.3%) and 292 (25.6%) respectively. In our series, thirteen patients (mortality rate 1.1%) died as result of hemorrhagic shock (n=8), respiratory distress (n=3) and severe multiple trauma (n=2). CONCLUSION: Although majority of the patients with thorax trauma receive treatment as outpatients; thoracic traumas may be a life threatening condition, and should be identified and treated immediately. Mortality varies based on etiological factors, additional systemic pathologies, capabilities of the hospital especially diagnostic and treatment facilities in emergency services. We believe that a multidisciplinary approach to the patients with severe thorax trauma, and the opportunities of emergency bedside thoracotomy in emergency services will significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality.
KEYWORDS: Hemothorax; Mortality; Pneumothorax; Rib fractures; Thoracic trauma


Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor
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