BACKGROUND: Currently there is no clinical consensus on how to treat occult pneumothoraces in adults, and even less research has been done in children. We sought to understand the outcomes of severely injured, ventilated children with occult pneumothoraces. METHODS: Using the Alberta Trauma Registry, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all ventilated pediatric patients at a children's hospital from 2001 to 2011 who had an injury severity score greater than 12 and a diagnosis of occult pneumothorax (seen on computed tomography scan but not on supine chest radiograph). RESULTS: There were 1689 severely injured children, with 496 admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and ventilated. A total of 130 children were found to have pneumothoraces, and of those, 96 were admitted to the PICU. Of those, 15 children had a total of 19 occult pneumothoraces, and all were successfully treated without chest tubes. The average age was 13.4 (range 2.0-17.0) years, and 54% of these children were male. The average time spent on the ventilator was 2.3 (range 0-13) days, and 7 children had at least 1 operation. CONCLUSION: In our institution, occult pneumothoraces occur in very few severely injured, ventilated pediatric trauma patients. Our study adds to the increasing evidence in the adult and pediatric literature suggesting that occult pneumothoraces may be safely observed even while under positive-pressure ventilation.
BMC Neurol. 2015 Feb 4;15:7. doi: 10.1186/s12883-015-0259-7.
BACKGROUND: Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on the International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD-10) codes used to define TBI among children and youth internationally. This study systematically reviewed the literature to explore the range of ICD-10 codes that are used to define TBI in this population. The identification of the range of ICD-10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched. Grey literature was searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles were also searched for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A full text screen was conducted on articles that met the first screen inclusion criteria. All full text articles that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were included for analysis in this systematic review. RESULTS: A total of 1,326 publications were identified through the predetermined search strategy and 32 articles/reports met all eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review. Five articles specifically examined children and youth aged 19 years or under with TBI. ICD-10 case definitions ranged from the broad injuries to the head codes (ICD-10 S00 to S09) to concussion only (S06.0). There was overwhelming consensus on the inclusion of ICD-10 code S06, intracranial injury, while codes S00 (superficial injury of the head), S03 (dislocation, sprain, and strain of joints and ligaments of head), and S05 (injury of eye and orbit) were only used by articles that examined head injury, none of which specifically examined children and youth. CONCLUSION: This review provides evidence for discussion on how best to use ICD codes for different goals. This is an important first step in reaching an appropriate definition and can inform future work on reaching consensus on the ICD-10 codes to define TBI for this vulnerable population.