The presence of co-morbidities during pregnancy can pose numerous challenges to the attending anesthesiologists during operative deliveries or during the provision of labor analgesia services. The presence of cardiac diseases, endocrinological disorders, respiratory diseases, renal pathologies, hepatic dysfunction, anemia, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, connective tissue diseases and many others not only influence the obstetric outcome, but can significantly impact the anesthetic technique. The choice of anesthesia during the pregnancy depends upon the type of surgery, the period of gestation, the site of surgery, general condition of patient and so on. Whatever, the anesthetic technique is chosen the methodology should be based on evidentially supported literature and the clinical judgment of the attending anesthesiologist. The list of co-morbid diseases is unending. However, the present review describes the common co-morbidities encountered during pregnancy and their anesthetic management during operative deliveries.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystemic autoimmune disease that occurs predominantly in women of fertile age. The association of SLE and pregnancy, mainly with active disease and especially with nephritis, has poorer pregnancy outcomes, with increased frequency of preeclampsia, fetal loss, prematurity, growth restriction, and newborns small for gestational age. Therefore, SLE pregnancies are considered high risk condition, should be monitored frequently during pregnancy and delivery should occur in a controlled setting. Pregnancy induces dramatic immune and neuroendocrine changes in the maternal body in order to protect the fetus from immunologic attack and these modifications can be affected by SLE. The risk of flares depends on the level of maternal disease activity in the 6-12 months before conception and is higher in women with repeated flares before conception, in those who discontinue useful medications and in women with active glomerulonephritis at conception. It is a challenge to differentiate lupus nephritis from preeclampsia and, in this context, the angiogenic and antiangiogenic cytokines are promising. Prenatal care of pregnant patients with SLE requires close collaboration between rheumatologist and obstetrician. Planning pregnancy is essential to increase the probability of successful pregnancies.
J Epilepsy Res. 2015 Jun 30;5(1):29-32. doi: 10.14581/jer.15008. eCollection 2015.
Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) is considered as an objective marker of severe maternal morbidity. The aim was to assess the incidence and possible risk factors of obstetric patient admissions in the multidisciplinary ICU of a tertiary care center with emphasis on standardized mortality ratio (SMR).MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective five year ICU record analysis was done for all pregnant women, who were admitted to multidisciplinary ICU of a tertiary care hospital during June 2007-12.RESULTS:
During this 5-year period, 21,943 deliveries took place and 164 women required ICU admission. Out of these, the data of 151 patients were analyzed. Maternal mortality rate was 31.1% (47 deaths) for patients admitted to ICU. The simplified acute physiologic score (SAPS) II was 62 (55-68) in nonsurvivor versus 34.00 (28-46) in survivor group (P value < 0.001). The receiver operated characteristic curve was plotted using SAPS II scores and the area under the curve was 0.93 with 95% confidence interval (0.89-0.96). The calculated SMR was 0.97. CONCLUSIONS:
Women admitted to ICU with diagnosis of puerperal sepsis and intrauterine death (IUD) with coexisting sepsis had higher mortality as compared to women with hypertensive disease of pregnancy and hemorrhage. The calculated SMR was less than one which is a predictor of good ICU care.