lunes, 20 de abril de 2015

Dexmedetomidina en pediatría/Dexmedetomidine in pediatrics

No.1947                                                                                   Abril 20, 2015
Dosis elevadas de dexmedetomidina. Efectiva como agente único para sedación en niños programados en RNM
High dose dexmedetomidine: effective as a sole agent sedation for children undergoing MRI.
Ahmed SS, Unland T, Slaven JE, Nitu ME.
Int J Pediatr. 2015;2015:397372. doi: 10.1155/2015/397372. Epub 2015 Jan 29.
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La dexmedetomidina ofrece una opción para la sedación segura y efectiva para imágenes de medicina nuclear en niños.
Dexmedetomidine offers an option for safe and effective sedation for nuclear medicine imaging in children.
Mason KP, Robinson F, Fontaine P, Prescilla R.
Radiology. 2013 Jun;267(3):911-7. doi: 10.1148/radiol.13121232. Epub 2013 Feb 28.
Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of bradycardia, hypotension, and hypertension with dexmedetomidine (DEX), a recently approved sedative used for procedural sedation that has not been described previously for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2005 and August 2011, 669 patients (mean age, 5.7 years ± 4.5 [standard deviation]; median age, 4.5 years; age range, 0.1-22.5 years) received DEX in this HIPAA-compliant study. Sedation was administered with DEX, an α-2 adrenergic agonist, as an intravenous bolus (2 μg per kilogram of body weight) over a 10-minute period; this was followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 1 μg/kg/h until imaging was complete. The bolus could be repeated up to two times, if needed, to achieve the targeted level of a Ramsay sedation score of 4. After institutional review board approval, collected quality assurance data were reviewed. RESULTS: Adequate sedation was achieved within 8.6 minutes ± 4.6 (median, 8.0 minutes; range, 1.0-40.0 minutes) on average in studies that averaged 41.3 minutes ± 25.5 (median, 31.5 minutes; range, 9.0-183.0 minutes). Of 669 studies, 667 (99.7%) were completed successfully. Six children (0.9%) had brief periods of oxygen desaturation below 95%, none of which required airway intervention. Hypotension, hypertension, and bradycardia (all defined as deviations of more than 20% from age-adjusted awake norms), occurred in 58.7% (n = 393), 2.1% (n = 14), and 4.3% (n = 29) of patients, respectively. Both hypotension and bradycardia were related to age (P = .033 and P = .002, respectively); older children tended to experience more of these events. None of these fluctuations required pharmacologic therapy. Discharge criteria (modified Aldrete score ≥ 9) were met, on average, within 41.4 minutes ± 27.9 (median, 36.0 minutes; range, 1.0-220.0 minutes). CONCLUSION: DEX offers advantages for pediatric sedation for nuclear medicine imaging. DEX produces a condition similar to natural sleep, with no detrimental effect on respiration. The hemodynamic variability anticipated with DEX did not require pharmacologic treatment, and the drug was well tolerated.
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Sedación pediátrica en un centro de RNM ambulatoria en un hospital de la comunidad
Pediatric sedation in a community hospital-based outpatient MRI center.
Mason KP1, Fontaine PJ, Robinson F, Zgleszewski S.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012 Feb;198(2):448-52. doi: 10.2214/AJR.11.7346.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Although the demand for pediatric MRI is increasing, it is uncommon to find sedation being offered at community hospital-based outpatient centers. We present our safety, efficacy, and outcome data at a community hospital-based outpatient imaging center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I.v. dexmedetomidine sedation was administered as a bolus of 3 μg/kg and maintained with a continuous infusion of 1 μg/kg/hr until imaging was complete. The dexmedetomidine bolus could be repeated up to two times, if needed. Quality assurance data were reviewed. RESULTS: From April 2009 to July 2010, 279 children (mean age, 4.2 years; age range, 0.2-17.2 years) were sedated. All received a first bolus, 46 required a second dose, and two received a third. The average time to achieve sedation was 7.8 minutes (SD, ± 3.8 minutes). Total duration of imaging (82% brain MRI) averaged 38.1 minutes (range, 8.0-126.0 minutes). On average, discharge criteria were met within 21.3 minutes of arrival in recovery room (± 17.8 minutes). The heart rate and blood pressure deviated from baseline by more than 20% in 5% and 33% of the patients, respectively. No pharmacologic therapy was administered to treat the hemodynamic variability. There were no adverse respiratory events. All imaging studies were successfully completed. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine offers an option for pediatric sedation for MRI at community hospital-based outpatient settings. It preserves respiration but elicits deviations in blood pressure and heart rate that have not required pharmacologic intervention. Dexmedetomidine offers a safe, effective, and efficient agent for sedation for children undergoing MRI in an outpatient setting.
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