sábado, 22 de marzo de 2014

Dolor por Cancer

Tratamiento del dolor por cáncer: 1. Las repercusiones generales de los analgésicos ortodoxos 
Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics.
Lee SK, Dawson J, Lee JA, Osman G, Levitin MO, Guzel RM, Djamgoz MB.
Int J Gen Med. 2014 Jan 7;7:49-58. eCollection 2014.
In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA "mimetics" (eg, gabapentin) appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancerpain can significantly affect the cancer process itself. More futuristically, several ion channels are being targeted with novel analgesics, but many of these are also involved in primary and/or secondary tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to elucidate possible cellular and molecular effects of orthodox analgesics and their possible long-term impact, both positive and negative, and thus enable the best possible clinical gain for cancer patients.
KEYWORDS: GABA mimetics, GABA-ergic drugs, NSAIDs, cannabinoids, ion channels, opioids 

Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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