viernes, 22 de diciembre de 2017

Obstetricia / Obstetrics

Diciembre 22, 2017. No. 2940
Libro de Obstetricia
Obstetrics
Edited by Hassan Salah Abduljabbar, ISBN 978-953-51-3704-7, Print ISBN 978-953-51-3703-0, 198 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published December 20, 2017 under CC BY 3.0 license
DOI: 10.5772/66054
Edited VolumeObstetrics is the field that deals with the well-being of the pregnant women as well as the labor and delivery of a healthy baby. Obstetricians work closely as neonatologists who deal with the care of the newborn baby to reduce chances of morbidity and mortality. The objective of obstetrics is to deal with diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy, antenatal care, and prevention of complication, collaborating with midwives to monitor pregnant women in labor, facilitating delivery and performing assisted procedures if needed as episiotomy, forceps delivery, vacuum extraction, and Cesarean section if indicated.
Prevención de nausea y vomito en mujeres con anestesia regional en cesárea. Retos y soluciones
Preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anesthesia for cesarean section: challenges and solutions.
Local Reg Anesth. 2017 Aug 9;10:83-90. doi: 10.2147/LRA.S111459. eCollection 2017.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) or postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) affecting women undergoing regional anesthesia for cesarean section is an important clinical problem since these techniques are used widely. There are burdens of literature about IONV/PONV and several in parturient and cesarean. However, it needs more attention. The underlying mechanisms of IONV and PONV in the obstetrical setting mainly include hypotension due to sympathicolysis during neuraxial anesthesia, bradycardia owing to an increased vagal tone, the visceral stimulation via the surgical procedure and intravenously administered opioids. METHODS: Given the high and even increasing rate of cesarean sections and the sparse information on the etiology, incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the impact of prophylactic measures on the incidence of PONV/IONV, this article aims to review the available information and provide pragmatic suggestions on how to prevent nausea and vomiting in this patient cohort. Current literature and guidelines were identified by electronic database searching (MEDLINE via PubMed and Cochrane database of systematic reviews) up to present, searching through reference lists of included literature and personal contact with experts. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Taking into account the current guidelines and literature as well as everyday clinical experience, the first step for decreasing the incidence of IONV and PONV is a comprehensive management of circulatory parameters. This management includes liberal perioperative fluid administration and the application of vasopressors as the circumstances require. By using low-dose local anesthetics, an additional application of intrathecal or spinal opioids or hyperbaric solutions for a sufficient controllability of neuraxial distribution, maternal hypotension might be reduced. Performing a combined spinal-epidural anesthesia or epidural anesthesia may be considered as an alternative to spinal anesthesia. Antiemetic drugs may be administered restrainedly due to off-label use in pregnant women for IONV or PONV prophylaxis and may be reserved for treatment.
KEYWORDS: PONV; antiemetics; hypotension; neuraxial anesthesia; obstetrics
Comparación de fenilefrina y efedrina en el manejo de la hipotensión inducida por raquia en embarazo de alto riesgo. Revisión narrativa
Comparison of Phenylephrine and Ephedrine in Treatment of Spinal-Induced Hypotension in High-Risk Pregnancies: A Narrative Review.
Front Med (Lausanne). 2017 Jan 20;4:2. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2017.00002. eCollection 2017.
Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare maternal and fetal effects of intravenous phenylephrine and ephedrine administration during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery in high-risk pregnancies. SOURCE: An extensive literature search was conducted using the US National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE search engine, Cochrane review, and Google Scholar using search terms "ephedrine and phenylephrine," "preterm and term and spinal hypotension," "preeclampsia and healthy parturients," or "multiple and singleton gestation and vasopressor." PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Both phenylephrine and ephedrine can be safely used to counteract hypotension after spinal anesthesia in patients with uteroplacental insufficiency, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and in non-elective cesarean deliveries. Vasopressor requirements before delivery in high-risk cesarean sections are reduced compared to healthy parturients. Among the articles reviewed, there were no statistically significant differences in umbilical arterial pH, umbilical venous pH, incidence of fetal acidosis, Apgar scores, or maternal hypotension when comparing maternal phenylephrine and ephedrine use. CONCLUSION: From the limited existing data, phenylephrine and ephedrine are both appropriate selections for treating or preventing hypotension induced by neuraxial blockade in high-risk pregnancies. There is no clear evidence that either medication is more effective at maintaining maternal blood pressure or has a superior safety profile in this setting. Further investigations are required to determine the efficacy, ideal dosing regimens, and overall safety of phenylephrine and ephedrine administration in high-risk obstetric patients, especially in the presence uteroplacental insufficiency.
KEYWORDS: ephedrine; fetal compromise; hypotension; phenylephrine; preeclampsia; uteroplacental insufficiency

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