lunes, 12 de diciembre de 2016

Anestesia para cirugía laparoscópica / Anaesthesia for laparoscopic surgery

Diciembre 12,  2016. No. 2536


Anestesia para cirugía laparoscópica. General vs regional
Anaesthesia for laparoscopic surgery: General vs regional anaesthesia.
J Minim Access Surg. 2016 Jan-Mar;12(1):4-9. doi: 10.4103/0972-9941.169952.
The use of laparoscopy has revolutionised the surgical field with its advantages of reduced morbidity with early recovery. Laparoscopic procedures have been traditionally performed under general anaesthesia (GA) due to the respiratory changes caused by pneumoperitoneum, which is an integral part of laparoscopy. The precise control of ventilation under controlled conditions in GA has proven it to be ideal for such procedures. However, recently the use of regional anaesthesia (RA) has emerged as an alternative choice for laparoscopy. Various reports in the literature suggest the safety of the use of spinal, epidural and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia in laparoscopic procedures. The advantages of RA can include: Prevention of airway manipulation, an awake and spontaneously breathing patient intraoperatively, minimal nausea and vomiting, effective post-operative analgesia, and early ambulation and recovery. However, RA may be associated with a few side effects such as the requirement of a higher sensory level, more severe hypotension, shoulder discomfort due to diaphragmatic irritation, and respiratory embarrassment caused by pneumoperitoneum. Further studies may be required to establish the advantage of RA over GA for its eventual global use in different patient populations.
KEYWORDS: General anaesthesia (GA); laparoscopy; pneumoperitoneum; spinal anaesthesia
Papel de la ML en colecistectomía laparoscópica
Role of laryngeal mask airway in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
World J Gastrointest Surg. 2015 Nov 27;7(11):319-25. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v7.i11.319.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures and the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is the most common supraglottic airway device used by the anesthesiologists to manage airway during general anesthesia. Use of LMA has some advantages when compared to endotracheal intubation, such as quick and ease of placement, a lesser requirement for neuromuscular blockade and a lower incidence of postoperative morbididy. However, the use of the LMA in laparoscopy is controversial, based on a concern about increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The ability of these devices to provide optimal ventilation during laparoscopic procedures has been also questioned. The most important parameter to secure an adequate ventilation and oxygenation for the LMA under pneumoperitoneum condition is its seal pressure of airway. A good sealing pressure, not only state correct patient ventilation, but it reduces the potential risk of aspiration due to the better seal of airway. In addition, the LMAs incorporating a gastric access, permitting a safe anesthesia based on these commented points. We did a literature search to clarify if the use of LMA in preference to intubation provides inadequate ventilation or increase the risk of aspiration in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We found evidence stating that LMA with drain channel achieves adequate ventilation for these procedures. Limited evidence was found to consider these devices completely safe against aspiration. However, we observed that the incidence of regurgitation and aspiration associated with the use of the LMA in laparoscopic surgery is very low.
KEYWORDS: I-gel; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Laryngeal mask airway; Laryngeal mask airway Proseal; Laryngeal mask airway Supreme; Oropharyngeal leak pressure; Ventilation
Comparación de mascarilla ¨Supreme¨ y ¨Proseal¨en pacientes de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Estudio randomizado controlado
Comparison of the Supreme and the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled trial.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2016 Jun;54(2):44-50. doi: 10.1016/j.aat.2016.03.001. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
OBJECTIVE: The single-use LMA Supreme (Teleflex, Inc., Wayne, PA, USA) and the LMA ProSeal (Teleflex, Inc., Wayne, PA, USA) laryngeal mask airway (LMA) have similar characteristics. To date, studies have not achieved a consensus regarding the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) of the LMA Supreme and LMA ProSeal, and there is little information on their efficacy in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study compared the safety and efficacy of the LMA Supreme and LMA ProSeal devices in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHOD: Eighty-four eligible consenting patients were randomly allocated to the LMA Supreme group or the LMA ProSeal group. Both groups received the standard anesthesia technique. The Supreme or ProSeal LMA was inserted, the cuff was inflated to 60 cmH2O, and the LMA position was confirmed. Anesthesia was maintained using propofol and 50% oxygen in air. A gastric tube was inserted through the drain tube of the LMA to deflate the stomach, and the first attempt success rate and insertion time were recorded. During surgery, the intra-abdominal pressure was maintained at 12 mmHg. The fiberoptic view of the larynx was determined by passing a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The OLPs, success rate, insertion time, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and complications were recorded at different time points. RESULTS: The mean OLP was significantly lower in the LMA Supreme group than in the LMA ProSeal group (24.9 ± 5.3 cmH2O vs. 28.4 ± 5.8 cmH2O; p < 0.01). The first attempt success rate and ease of insertion grading for LMA were higher in the Supreme group. The insertion time was lower in the Supreme group than in the ProSeal group (p < 0.01). The fiberoptic view was better with the ProSeal LMA. The hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and postoperative sore throat were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: The LMA ProSeal has a higher OLP than the LMA Supreme. The success rate of first attempt insertion and ease of insertion were better for the LMA Supreme group and the insertion time was lower in the LMA Supreme group. The Supreme and ProSeal LMAs were both effective for positive pressure ventilation in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
KEYWORDS: ProSeal; Supreme; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; laryngeal mask airway; oropharyngeal leak pressure
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
California Society of Anesthesiologists
Annual Meeting April 27-30, 2017
San Francisco California
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