BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on how to approach patients taking new orally administered anticoagulants (NOAs) dabigatran etexilate (a direct thrombin inhibitor), rivaroxaban and apixaban (factor Xa inhibitors), before, during and after dental treatment in light of the more recent knowledges. DISCUSSION: In dentistry and oral surgery, the major concerns in treatment of patients taking direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors is the risk of haemorrhage and the absence of a specific reversal agent. The degree of renal function, the complexity of the surgical procedure and the patient's risk of bleeding due to other concomitant causes, are the most important factors to consider during surgical dental treatment of patients taking NOAs. For patients requiring simple dental extraction or minor oral surgery procedures, interruption of NOA is not generally necessary, while an higher control of bleeding and discontinuation of the drug (at least 24 h) should be requested before invasive surgical procedures, depending on renal functionality. The clinician has to consider that the number of patients taking NOAs is rapidly increasing. Since available data are not sufficient to establish an evidence-based dental management, the dentist must use caution and attention when treating patients taking dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious medical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and an incidence that is expected to double in the next forty years. The advent of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has catalyzed significant changes in the therapeutic landscape of VTE treatment. As such, it is imperative that clinicians become familiar with and appropriately implement new treatment paradigms. This manuscript, initiated by the Anticoagulation Forum, provides clinical guidance for VTE treatment with the DOACs. When possible, guidance statements are supported by existing published evidence and guidelines. In instances where evidence or guidelines are lacking, guidance statements represent the consensus opinion of all authors of this manuscript and are endorsed by the Board of Directors of the Anticoagulation Forum.The authors of this manuscript first developed a list of pivotal practical questions related to real-world clinical scenarios involving the use of DOACs for VTE treatment. We then performed a PubMed search for topics and key words including, but not limited to, apixaban, antidote, bridging, cancer, care transitions,dabigatran, direct oral anticoagulant, deep vein thrombosis, edoxaban, interactions, measurement, perioperative, pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, reversal, rivaroxaban, switching, \thrombophilia, venous thromboembolism, and warfarin to answer these questions. Non- English publications and publications > 10 years old were excluded. In an effort to provide practical information about the use of DOACs for VTE treatment, answers to each question are provided in the form of guidance statements, with the intent of high utility and applicability for frontline clinicians across a multitude of care settings.
KEYWORDS: Antidotes; Bridging anticoagulation; Care transitions; DOACs; Direct thrombin inhibitors; Drug interactions; Factor Xa inhibitors; NOACs
World J Methodol. 2015 Dec 26;5(4):212-5. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v5.i4.212. eCollection 2015.
Thromboembolic disease is a major leading cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries. Currently, the management of these patients is challenging due to the availability of new drugs with proven efficacy and security compared to traditional oral vitamin K antagonists. These compounds are characterized by a predictable pharmacokinetic profile for which blood monitoring is not routinely needed. Nevertheless, some data have suggested inter-patient variability in the anticoagulant effect of these drugs, raising concerns about their effectiveness and safety. Although mass-spectrometry is the gold standard to determine drug plasma concentrations, this method is not widely available in every-day practice and some coagulation assays are commonly used to determine the anticoagulant effect of these drugs. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the clinical question of how and when to monitor patients with new anticoagulant oral agents.
KEYWORDS: Anticoagulant agents; Apixaban; Dabigatran; Drug monitoring; Rivaroxaban