miércoles, 21 de enero de 2015

Delirio postoperatorio / Postoperative delirium

Desarrollando una estrategia para identificar y tratar pacientes viejos con delirio postoperatorio
Developing a strategy to identify and treat older patients with postoperative delirium.
Brooks P, Spillane JJ, Dick K, Stuart-Shor E.
AORN J. 2014 Feb;99(2):257-73; quiz 274-6. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2013.12.009.
Abstract
Postoperative delirium is one of the most common adverse outcomes in elderly patients undergoing surgery and is associated with increased morbidity, length of stay, and patient care costs. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent strategy to identify and treat general surgical patients 65 years of age or older at risk for and who develop postoperative delirium at Cape Cod Hospital, a community hospital in southern New England. We evaluated 96 patients using the Mini-Cog assessment tool preoperatively and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) delirium screening tool or CAM-Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) assessment tool postoperatively. Patients who tested positive during preoperative assessment underwent a postoperative delirium management protocol. We summarized data using descriptive statistics. The results showed an association between compliance and outcomes. High compliance with implementation of CAM and CAM-ICU assessment tools resulted in increased identification of postoperative delirium in the older surgical population. The use of screening tools helped facilitate early identification of postoperative delirium in elderly surgical patients.
Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS:
CAM; CAM-ICU; CAM-Intensive Care Unit; Mini-Cog assessment; RASS; Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale; assessment tools; cognitive assessment method; delirium; delirium screening tools; postoperative assessment; postoperative delirium
Delirio postoperatorio: factores de riesgo y manejo.
Postoperative delirium: risk factors and management: continuing professional development.
Chaput AJ, Bryson GL.
Can J Anaesth. 2012 Mar;59(3):304-20. doi: 10.1007/s12630-011-9658-4. Epub 2012 Feb 4.
Abstract
PURPOSE: Postoperative delirium often remains undiagnosed and therefore untreated. The purpose of this continuing professional development module is to identify patients at high risk of developing delirium following non-cardiac surgery and to provide tools to aid in the diagnosis of deliriumat the bedside. Optimal prevention and treatment strategies are recommended. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Delirium is characterized by an acute onset and a fluctuating course, inattention, disorganized thinking and an altered level of consciousness, and occurs in up to 40% of patients in the perioperative period. The pathophysiology of delirium is multifactorial, but it is believed to be related to inflammation, altered neurotransmission, and stress in the patient who has had surgery. Acetylcholine and dopamine appear to play a significant role. There is an increased risk of a poor outcome in patients who develop delirium, including a longer hospital stay and death. Surgical and patient factors play a significant role in predicting who will subsequently develop delirium. Prevention is much more effective than treatment in the management of delirium. The most effective prevention strategies include proactive geriatric
assessment and care of the patient on a geriatrics surgical ward as well as prophylactic low-dose antipsychotic agents. From an anesthetic perspective, evidence in some surgical populations would support the use of regional techniques and minimal sedation. If delirium develops, treatment with low-dose oral antipsychotics appears to be most effective. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium is a serious condition that must be recognized early and treated promptly to minimize deleterious outcomes. In order to institute prevention strategies and treat the condition effectively when it occurs, the anesthesiologist must be vigilant in identifying patients at risk and in screening for this condition.
Alteraciones cognitivas postoperatorias
Postoperative cognitive disorders.
Monk TG, Price CC.
Curr Opin Crit Care. 2011 Aug;17(4):376-81
Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The elderly are the fastest growing segment of the population and undergo 25-30% of all surgical procedures. Postoperative cognitive problems are common in older patients following major surgery. The socioeconomic implications of these cognitive disorders are profound; cognitive decline is associated with a loss of independence, a reduction in the quality of life, and death. This review will focus on the two most common cognitive problems following surgery: postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). RECENT FINDINGS: For years, preoperative geriatric consultation/screening was the only intervention proven to decrease postoperative delirium. There are, however, several recent publications indicating that preoperative and postoperative pharmacological and medical (hydration, oxygenation) management can reduce postoperative delirium. Spinal anesthesia with minimal propofol sedation has been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative delirium in hip-fracture patients. Likewise, dexmedetomidine sedation in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU is associated with less postoperative delirium and shorter ventilator times. Preoperative levels of education and brain function (cognitive reserve) may predict patientsat risk for postoperative cognitive problems. Reduced white matter integrity is reported to place patients at a higher risk for both postoperative delirium and POCD. SUMMARY: The etiology of postoperative cognitive problems is unknown, but there is emerging evidence that decreased preoperative cognitive function contributes to the development of postoperative delirium and POCD. There is growing concern that inhalation anesthetics may be neurotoxic to the aging brain, but there are no human data evaluating this hypothesis to date. Randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions to improve long-term cognitive outcomes in elderly patients are urgently needed.
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