miércoles, 25 de diciembre de 2013

Historia de la anestesia

Este mes en la Historia de la Anestesia: Diciembre

This Month in Anesthesia History: December
1298 December 24: Theodoric of Lucca, Italian physician and bishop, died. He developed the "soporific sponges" soaked with opium and mandragora, for surgical pain relief. [See Juvin P, Desmonts JM. The ancestors of inhalationalanesthesia: the Soporific Sponges (XIth-XVIIthcenturies): how a universally recommended medical technique was abruptly discarded. Anesthesiology.2000 Jul;93(1):265-9]

Sangre y Guerra

Blood and war.
Hedley-Whyte J, Milamed DR.
Harvard University, Boston, MA 02132-4927, USA. john_hedley-whyte@hms.harvard.edu
Ulster Med J. 2010 Sep;79(3):125-34.
In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.


Historia de la anestesiología: formas iniciales de anestesia local
History of anaesthesia: early forms of local anaesthesia.
Zimmer M.
From the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne, Paris, France.
Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2014 Jan;31(1):1-12. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e328365ad7c.
The direct application of volatile anaesthetic and the application of intense cold to traumatic injuries and surgical sites were important steps in 18th and 19th century anaesthesia. Local tissue temperature could be brought down by the application of ice and salt by the surgeon. Techniques used topical applications of chloroform, Dutch Oil, amyl hydrate, the vaporisation of nebulised ether, methylene and ethylene chloride applied by spray or fumigation and vaginal douche with carbonic acid gas. Mastering the projection of cold was extremely difficult. Keeping the aperture of the device used for the spraying of anaesthetic liquids clear of obstruction became a major challenge for instrument makers. To improve the precision of the jet, a different system of nozzles had to be invented. Nineteenth century medical practitioners were able to call on general anaesthesia, but some individuals and specific indications such as minor surgery called for an alternative approach. The introduction of cocaine in 1884 completely changed common practice.


Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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