lunes, 2 de julio de 2018

UCI / ICU

Julio 2, 2018. No. 3129
El papel del ultrasonido en la atención crítica prehospitalaria: una revisión sistemática.
The role of point of care ultrasound in prehospital critical care: a systematic review.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2018 Jun 26;26(1):51. doi: 10.1186/s13049-018-0518-x.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the role of Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) was defined as one of the top five research priorities in physician-provided prehospital critical care and future research topics were proposed; the feasibility of prehospital POCUS, changes in patient management induced by POCUS and education of providers. This systematic review aimed to assess these three topics by including studies examining all kinds of prehospital patients undergoing all kinds of prehospital POCUS examinations and studies examining any kind of POCUS education in prehospital critical care providers. METHODS AND RESULTS: By a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, we identified and screened titles and abstracts of 3264 studies published from 2012 to 2017. Of these, 65 studies were read in full-text for assessment of eligibility and 27 studies were ultimately included and assessed for quality by SIGN-50 checklists. No studies compared patient outcome with and without prehospital POCUS. Four studies of acceptable quality demonstrated feasibility and changes in patient management in trauma. Two studies of acceptable quality demonstrated feasibility and changes in patient management in breathing difficulties. Four studies of acceptable quality demonstrated feasibility, outcome prediction and changes in patient management in cardiac arrest, but also that POCUS may prolong pauses in compressions. Two studies of acceptable quality demonstrated that short (few hours) teaching sessions are sufficient for obtaining simple interpretation skills, but not image acquisition skills. Three studies of acceptable quality demonstrated that longer one- or two-day courses including hands-on training are sufficient for learning simple, but not advanced, image acquisition skills. Three studies of acceptable quality demonstrated that systematic educational programs including supervised examinations are sufficient for learning advanced image acquisition skills in healthy volunteers, but that more than 50 clinical examinations are required for expertise in a clinical setting. CONCLUSION: Prehospital POCUS is feasible and changes patient management in trauma, breathing difficulties and cardiac arrest, but it is unknown if this improves outcome. Expertise in POCUS requires extensive training by a combination of theory, hands-on training and a substantial amount of clinical examinations - a large part of these needs to be supervised.
KEYWORDS: Cardiac arrest; Critical care; Dyspnea; Education; Point of care; Prehospital; Systematic review; Trauma; Ultrasound
Antiepiléticos en el paciente grave
Antiepileptic drugs in critically ill patients.
Crit Care. 2018 Jun 7;22(1):153. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2066-1.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The incidence of seizures in intensive care units ranges from 3.3% to 34%. It is therefore often necessary to initiate or continue anticonvulsant drugs in this setting. When a new anticonvulsant is initiated, drug factors, such as onset of action and side effects, and patient factors, such as age, renal, and hepatic function, should be taken into account. It is important to note that the altered physiology of critically ill patients as well as pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions such as renal replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and target temperature management may lead to therapeutic failure or toxicity. This may be even more challenging with the availability of newer antiepileptics where the evidence for their use in critically ill patients is limited. MAIN BODY: This article reviews the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiepileptics as well as application of these principles when dosing antiepileptics and monitoring serum levels in critically ill patients. The selection of the most appropriate anticonvulsant to treat seizure and status epileptics as well as the prophylactic use of these agents in this setting are also discussed. Drug-drug interactions and the effect of nonpharmacological interventions such as renal replacement therapy, plasma exchange, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on anticonvulsant removal are also included. CONCLUSION: Optimal management of antiepileptic drugs in the intensive care unit is challenging given altered physiology, polypharmacy, and nonpharmacological interventions, and requires a multidisciplinary approach where appropriate and timely assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring plans are in place.
KEYWORDS: Antiepileptic drugs; Critical care; Drug-drug Interaction; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics; Seizure
Biomarcadores en falla renal inducida por sepsis
Biomarkers of Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.
Wang K1, Xie S1, Xiao K1, Yan P1, He W2, Xie L1.
Biomed Res Int. 2018 Apr 24;2018:6937947. doi: 10.1155/2018/6937947. eCollection 2018.
Abstract
Sepsis, an infection-induced systemic disease, leads to pathological, physiological, and biochemical abnormalities in the body. Organ dysfunction is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection during sepsis which is a major contributing factor to acute kidney injury (AKI) and the mortality rate for sepsis doubles due to coincidence of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI is strongly associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes. More timely diagnosis would allow for earlier intervention and could improve patient outcomes. Sepsis-induced AKI is characterized by a distinct pathophysiology compared with other diseases and may also have unique patterns of plasma and urinary biomarkers. This concise review summarizes properties and perspectives of the biomarkers for their individual clinical utilization.
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