miércoles, 2 de mayo de 2018

Más sobre asma / More on asthma

Mayo 2, 2018. No. 3069
Muertes relacionadas con el asma
Asthma-related deaths.
Multidiscip Respir Med. 2016 Oct 12;11:37. eCollection 2016.
Despite major advances in the treatment of asthma and the development of several asthma guidelines, people still die of asthma currently. According to WHO estimates, approximately 250,000 people die prematurely each year from asthma. Trends of asthma mortality rates vary very widely across countries, age and ethnic groups. Several risk factors have been associated with asthma mortality, including a history of near-fatal asthma requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, hospitalization or emergency care visit for asthma in the past year, currently using or having recently stopped using oral corticosteroids (a marker of event severity), not currently using inhaled corticosteroids, a history of psychiatric disease or psychosocial problems, poor adherence with asthma medications and/or poor adherence with (or lack of) a written asthma action plan, food allergy in a patient with asthma. Preventable factors have been identified in the majority of asthma deaths. Inadequate education of patients on recognising risk and the appropriate action needed when asthma control is poor, deficiencies in the accuracy and timing of asthma diagnosis, inadequate classification of severity and treatment, seem to play a part in the majority of asthmadeaths. Improvements in management, epitomized by the use of guided self-management systems of care may be the key goals in reducing asthma mortality worldwide.
KEYWORDS: Asthma mortality trends; Asthma-deaths; Inhaled corticosteroids; Near fatal asthma
Ketamina en estado asmático. Una revisión
Ketamine in status asthmaticus: A review.
Indian J Crit Care Med. 2013 May;17(3):154-61. doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.117048.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Status asthmaticus is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The addition of ketamine to the standard treatment regimen of severe asthma has shown to improve outcome and alleviate the need for mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this review is to determine the pulmonary effects of ketamine and to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to support its use for refractory status asthmaticus. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane data bases (from their inception to Jan 2012) using key words "ketamine", "asthma", "bronchospasm", "bronchodilator", and "mechanical ventilation" were searched to identify the reports on the use of ketamine as a bronchodilator in acute severe asthma or status asthmaticus, and manual review of article bibliographies was done. Relevant databases were searched for the ongoing trials on use of ketamine as a bronchodilator. Outcome measures were analyzed using following clinical questions: Indication, dose and duration of ketamine use, main effects on respiratory mechanics, adverse effects, and mortality. RESULTS: Twenty reports illustrating the use of ketamine as a bronchodilator were identified. In total, 244 patients aged 5 months to 70 years received ketamine for bronchospasm. Twelve case reports, 3 double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials, 2 prospective observational studies, 2 clinical evaluation study, and 1 retrospective chart review were retrieved. Most of the studies showed improved outcome with use of ketamine in acute severe asthma unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients who received ketamine improved clinically, had lower oxygen requirements, and obviated the need for invasive ventilation. Mechanically-ventilated patients for severe bronchospasm showed reduction in peak inspiratory pressures, improved gas exchange, dynamic compliance and minute ventilation, and could be weaned off successfully following introduction of ketamine. CONCLUSION: In various studies, ketamine has been found to be a potential bronchodilator in severe asthma. However, a large prospective clinical trial is warranted before laying down any definitive recommendations on its use in status asthmaticus.
KEYWORDS: Bronchodilator; emergency department; intensive care unit; ketamine; status asthmaticus
¿Es la ketamina un agente salvavidas en el asma infantil aguda grave?
Is ketamine a lifesaving agent in childhood acute severe asthma?
Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2016 Feb 22;12:273-9. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S100389. eCollection 2016.
Children with acute severe asthma exacerbation are at risk of developing respiratory failure. Moreover, conventional aggressive management might be futile in acute severe asthma requiring intubation and invasive ventilation. The aim of this review is to detail evidence on the use of ketamine in childhood asthma exacerbations. A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed, using different combinations of the following terms: ketamine, asthma, use, exacerbation, and childhood. In addition, we searched the references of the identified articles for additional articles. We then reviewed titles and included studies that were relevant to the topic of interest. Finally, the search was limited to studies published in English and Spanish from 1918 to June 2015. Due to the scarcity in the literature, we included all published articles. The literature reports conflicting results of ketamine use for acute severe asthma in children. Taking into consideration the relatively good safety profile of the drug, ketamine might be a reasonable option in the management of acute severe asthma in children who fail to respond to standard therapy. Furthermore, pediatricians and pediatric emergency clinicians administering ketamine should be knowledgeable about the unique actions of this drug and its potential side effects.
KEYWORDS: asthma; children; ketamine
Manejo anestésico en asma
Anaesthetic management in asthma.
Minerva Anestesiol. 2007 Jun;73(6):357-65. Epub 2006 Nov 20.
Anaesthetic management in asthmatic patients has been focused on avoiding bronchoconstriction and inducing bronchodilation. However, the definition of asthma has changed over the past decade. Asthma has been defined as a clinical syndrome characterized by an inflammatory process that extends beyond the central airways to the distal airways and lung parenchyma. With this concept in mind, and knowing that asthma is a common disorder with increasing prevalence rates and severity worldwide, a rational choice of anaesthetic agents and procedures is mandatory. Thus, we pursued an update on the pharmacologic and technical anaesthetic approach for the asthmatic patient. When feasible, regional anaesthesia should be preferred because it reduces airway irritation and postoperative complications. If general anaesthesia is unavoidable, a laryngeal mask airway is safer than endotracheal intubation. Lidocaine inhalation, alone or combined with albuterol, minimizes histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Propofol and ketamine inhibit bronchoconstriction, decreasing the risk of bronchospasm during anaesthesia induction. Propofol yields central airway dilation and is more reliable than etomidate or thiopental. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane are potent bronchodilators and can be helpful even in status asthmaticus. Sevoflurane has shown controversial results in asthmatic patients. Vecuronium, rocuronium, cisatracurium, and pancuronium do not induce bronchospasm, while atracurium and mivacurium can dose-dependently release histamine and should be cautiously administered in those patients. Further knowledge about the sites of action of anaesthetic agents in the lung, allied with our understanding of asthma pathophysiology, will establish the best anaesthetic approach for people with asthma.
Congresos Médicos por Especialidades en todo Mundo
Medical Congresses by Specialties around the World
X Foro Internacional de Medicina del Dolor y Paliativa
Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
Ciudad de México, 7 al 9 de junio de 2018. 
Safe Anaesthesia Worldwide
Delivering safe anaesthesia to the world's poorest people
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