jueves, 12 de enero de 2017

Analgésicos / Analgesics

Enero 12, 2017. No. 2567

Reacciones de hipersensibilidad a AINES en niños y adolescentes: reacciones selectivas
Hypersensitivity Reactions to Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Children and Adolescents: Selective Reactions.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used throughout the world to treat pain and inflammation; however, they can trigger several types of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in all age groups. Although most such reactions occur through activation of the leukotriene pathway without specific immunological recognition (cross-intolerance), a significant number of DHRs to NSAIDs are due to immunological mechanisms (selective reactions [SRs]). SRs are thought to be induced by specific IgE antibodies or by T cells. In this manuscript, we focus on SRs, which are of great concern in children and adolescents and comprise a heterogeneous set of clinical pictures ranging from mild entities such as urticaria/angioedema to potentially life-threatening conditions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are the most frequent elicitors of IgE-mediated SRs, although pyrazolones have also been implicated. T cell-mediated reactions are infrequent in children but have been associated with ibuprofen, naproxen, and dipyrone. In this review, we analyze the available literature on SRs in children and adolescents, with emphasis on epidemiological data, mechanisms, and drugs involved, as well as on diagnostic procedures.
 Aspectos de seguridad de los analgésicos actuales: una actualización.
Safety issues of current analgesics: an update.
Clujul Med. 2015;88(2):128-36. doi: 10.15386/cjmed-413. Epub 2015 Apr 15.
Pain represents a complex experience which can be approached by various medicines. Non-opioid and opioid analgesics are the most common drugs used to manage different types of pain. The increased attention nowadays to pain management entailed concomitantly more frequent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to analgesic use. Drug-drug interactions can be sometimes responsible for the adverse effects. However, a significant proportion of analgesic ADRs are preventable, which would avoid patient suffering. In order to draw the attention to analgesics risks and to minimize the negative consequences related to their use, the present review comprises a synthesis of the most important safety issues described in the scientific literature. It highlights the potential risks of the most frequently used analgesic medicines: non-opioid (paracetamol, metamizole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and opioid analgesics. Even if there is a wide experience in their use, they continue to capture attention with safety concerns and with potential risks recently revealed. Acknowledging potential safety problems represents the first step for health professionals in assuring a safe and efficient analgesic treatment with minimum risks to patients. Taking into consideration all medical and environmental factors and carefully monitoring the patients are also essential in preventing and early detecting analgesic ADRs.
KEYWORDS: adverse drug reactions; analgesics; drug-drug interactions

Farmacología de los analgésicos no opiáceos (AINES)

El uso de aspirina y AINES reduce el riesgo de cáncer gástrico. Meta-análisis de dosis respuesta
Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use reduce gastric cancer risk: A dose-response meta-analysis.
Oncotarget. 2016 Nov 25. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.13591. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: The association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and gastric cancer (GC) risk is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs for GC. METHODS: A literature search was performed for relevant studies using the PubMed and Embase database (up to March 2016). Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the effect measures. The dose-response analysis and subgroup analysis were also performed. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included. Our results indicated that NSAIDs could reduce GC risk (any NSAIDs: RR=0.78, 96%CI=0.72-0.85; aspirin: RR=0.70, 95%CI=0.62-0.80; non-aspirin NSAIDs: RR=0.86, 95%CI=0.80-0.94), especially for non-cardia GC risk. Moreover, the dose-response analysis indicated the risk of GC decreased by 11% and 5% for 2 years increment of any NSAIDs and aspirin use, respectively. There were nonlinear relationships between the frequency of any NSAIDs use and aspirin use and GC risk (P for non-linearity<0.01), with a threshold effect of 5 times/week. A monotonically decreasing trend was observed only for the frequency of less than 5 times/week. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that NSAIDs is inversely associated with GC risk, especially for non-cardia GC risk. NSAIDs use may become a feasible approach to prevent GC.
KEYWORDS: aspirin; chemoprevention; gastric cancer; meta-analysis; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

5to Curso Internacional de Anestesiología cardiotorácica, vascular, ecocardiografía y circulación extracorpórea. SMACT
Mayo 4-6, 2017, Ciudad de México
Informes Dr. Hugo Martínez Espinoza bajamed@hotmail.com 
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
California Society of Anesthesiologists
Annual Meeting April 27-30, 2017
San Francisco California
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