BACKGROUND: General anesthesia as a technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomies has disadvantage in terms of the stress response, lack of postoperative analgesia and emesis. Regional anesthesia offers advantages over general anesthesia in terms of cost, postoperative analgesia, intact respiratory control mechanism and early ambulation. Shoulder tip pain remains the main concerns that can be alleviated by adding various adjuvants to local anesthetics. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of adding intrathecal dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine to decrease shoulder tip pain, onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic changes and side effects if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 60 patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. Group A received 3 ml of bupivacaine heavy and group B received 5 µg of dexmedetomidine along with 3 ml of bupivacaine diluted to total volume of 3.5 ml in each group. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It was done using Chi-square and Student's t-test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine provides stable hemodynamics, excellent sedation and analgesia and abolishes shoulder tip pain.
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine and midazolam both modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet, no human studies are available to compare them for postoperative analgesia after neuraxial administration. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the addition of dexmedetomidine or midazolam to intrathecal bupivacaine on the duration of effective analgesia and clinical safety profile. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. METHODS: The study cohort included a consecutive and prospective series of patients, referred for endourological procedures. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups (20 patients each) to receive intrathecally 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine in combination with 5 mcg of dexmedetomidine (dexmedetomidine group), 1 mg of midazolam (midazolam group) or 0.5 mL of 0.9% saline (control group). The groups were compared to the regression time of sensory block, duration of effective analgesia (defined as the time interval between administration of intrathecal drug to the time of first analgesic request or a numeric rating scale = 4.0), sedation score, and side effects in the first 24 hours. STATISTICS: One way-ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis test, and Chi-square test (χ²), significance level: P < 0.05. RESULTS: The duration of effective analgesia (time to first analgesic request) was significantly prolonged in the dexmedetomidine group (286 ± 64 minutes, P < 0.01) when compared with midazolam group (236.9 ± 64.9 minutes) and the control group (212.7 ± 70.2 minutes). Pairwise comparisons among the 3 groups with Bonferroni adjustment revealed that patients from the dexmedetomidine group were more sedated in comparison to the midazolam and control groups at the end of the first 15 minutes after intrathecal injection [χ² (2) = 7.157, P = 0.028], with a mean rank sedation score of 35.58 for dexmedetomidine, 25.00 for midazolam, and 30.93 for control. No significant differences in the side effects were observed during the study period. Midazolam did not lengthen the time of the two segment sensory regression or the time to first request analgesia. LIMITATION: The study cannot be extrapolated to muscle cutting surgeries under spinal anaesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of dexmedetomidine (5 mcg) to 3 mL of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5%) significantly prolongs the duration of effective analgesia in comparison to 1 mg midazolam or placebo (0.9% normal saline) with a comparable incidences of side effects.