lunes, 26 de diciembre de 2016

Opioides / Opioids

Diciembre 26,  2016. No. 2550

Documento de posición de la Federación Europea del Dolor sobre el uso apropiado de opiáceos en el tratamiento del dolor crónico.
European Pain Federation position paper on appropriate opioid use in chronic pain management.
Eur J Pain. 2017 Jan;21(1):3-19. doi: 10.1002/ejp.970.
Poorly controlled pain is a global public health issue. The personal, familial and societal costs are immeasurable. Only a minority of European patients have access to a comprehensive specialist pain clinic. More commonly the responsibility for chronic painmanagement and initiating opioid therapy rests with the primary care physician and other non-specialist opioid prescribers. There is much confusing and conflicting information available to non-specialist prescribers regarding opioid therapy and a great deal of unjustified fear is generated. Opioid therapy should only be initiated by competent clinicians as part of a multi-faceted treatment programme in circumstances where more simple measures have failed. Throughout, all patients must be kept under close clinical surveillance. As with any other medical therapy, if the treatment fails to yield the desired results and/or the patient is additionally burdened by an unacceptable level of adverse effects, the overall management strategy must be reviewed and revised. No responsible clinician will wish to pursue a failed treatment strategy or persist with an ineffective and burdensome treatment. In a considered attempt to empower and inform non-specialist opioid prescribers, EFIC convened a European group of experts, drawn from a diverse range of basic science and relevant clinical disciplines, to prepare a position paper on appropriate opioid use in chronicpain. The expert panel reviewed the available literature and harnessed the experience of many years of clinical practice to produce these series of recommendations. Its success will be judged on the extent to which it contributes to an improved pain management experience for chronic pain patients across Europe. SIGNIFICANCE: This position paper provides expert recommendations for primary care physicians and other non- specialist healthcare professionals in Europe, particularly those who do not have ready access to specialists in pain medicine, on the safe and appropriate use of opioid medications as part of a multi-faceted approach to pain management, in properly selected and supervised patients.
Las bases farmacológicas de los opioides
The pharmacological basis of opioids.
Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2015 Sep-Dec;12(3):219-21.
An opioid is a chemical that binds to opioid receptors, which are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The different effects elicited by activation of these receptors are due to their specific neuronal and extraneuronal distribution. The painkiller effect of opioids is induced by the synergy of the two events, namely reduction of pain threshold and emotional detachment from pain. The opioid effects transcending analgesia include sedation, respiratory depression, constipation and a strong sense of euphoria. There are opioid-like substances endogenously produced by the body. Naturally occurring peptides, called enkephalins, have opioid-like activities but are not derived from opium and exert opioid-like effects by interacting with opioid receptors on cell membranes. Yet, animals do contain the same morphine precursors and metabolites as opium poppy and are able to synthesize endogenous morphine alkaloid. Experimental and clinical studies show that opioids, at doses comparable to those of endogenous opioids, can activate pronociceptive systems, leading to pain hypersensitivity and short-term tolerance, a phenomenon encountered in postoperative pain management by acute opioid administration. Whether endogenous opioids play a role in the acute pain necessary to the survival of the individual, remains an open question.
KEYWORDS: analgesia; morphine; opioids; pain
5to Curso Internacional de Anestesiología cardiotorácica, vascular, ecocardiografía y circulación extracorpórea. SMACT
Mayo 4-6, 2017, Mexicali, México
Informes Dr. Hugo Martínez Espinoza
Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting
April 6-8, 2017, San Francisco, California, USA
ASRA American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
California Society of Anesthesiologists
Annual Meeting April 27-30, 2017
San Francisco California
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