J Anesth Crit Care Open Access (2016) 4(5): 00160. DOI: 10.15406/
In 1909 Thomas Jonnesco published his interesting paper under the title General spinal anesthesia through an approach of the subarachnoid space at a thoracic level, providing condition for surgery on the skull, head, neck and thorax. Etherington-Wilson proposed explaining the various possibilities for the spinal anesthesia. Leonardo da Vinci was considered the discoverer of Human and animal Anatomy. Image techniques have opened a gret new field for the study of anatomy in the living man. The modern means of image, associated to computed means have facilitated the evaluation of the CSF volume, through antero-posterior and height measures of the subarachnoid space based on bi-dimentional studies of MRI. The studies of the thoracic column with MRI show that exist a space between the dura-mater and the spinal cord (medula). Thoracic ouncture performed with needles proved safe and without neurological injury. Thoracic spinal anesthesia is a viable procedure, with a low incidence of
Anestesia combinada espinal-peridural torácica para laparotomía laparoscópica.Estudio de viabilidad
Thoracic combined spinal epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A feasibility study
Mehta N, Dar MR, Sharma S, Mehta KS.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2016;32:224-8
Background and Aims: The use of regional anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been reserved for patients who are at high-risk under general anesthesia (GA). The aim of this study was to assess whether thoracic combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia is a feasible option for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Thirty ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy received thoracic CSE anesthesia at T9-T10 or T10-T11 interspinous space using the midline approach. Two ml of isobaric levobupivacaine 0.5% with 25 μg of fentanyl was given intrathecally. Results: Surgery was conducted successfully in all except one patient. Thoracic CSE was performed at T9-T10 interspace in 25 patients and T10-T11 interspace in five patients. Paresthesia occurred in two patients (6.6%) transiently on Whitacre needle insertion that disappeared spontaneously. Dural puncture on epidural needle insertion occurred in one patient, and intrathecal placement of epidural catheter occurred in one. Ten patients (33%) complained of shoulder pain. Conversion to GA was done in one patient due to severe shoulder pain and anxiety. Hypotension occurred in 11 patients (36%) and all responded to single dose of mephenteramine 6 mg and fluid bolus. Bradycardia occurred in six patients (20%) which was managed in all with a single dose of atropine. Conclusion: Thoracic CSE anesthesia can be used effectively for ASA I and II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with significant postoperative benefits.