Australas Med J. 2014 Aug 31;7(8):334-44. doi: 10.4066/AMJ.2014.2105. eCollection 2014.
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of nosocomial pneumonia that occurs in patients who receive mechanical ventilation (MV). According to the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), the overall rate of VAP is 13.6 per 1,000 ventilator days. The incidence varies according to the patient group and hospital setting. The incidence of VAP ranges from 13-51 per 1,000 ventilation days. Early diagnosis of VAP with appropriate antibiotic therapy can reduce the emergence of resistant organisms. METHOD: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the incidence, risk factors, aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of VAP. A literature search for VAP was done through the PUBMED/MEDLINE database. This review outlines VAP's risk factors, diagnostic methods,associated organisms, and treatment modalities. CONCLUSION: VAP is a common nosocomial infection associated with ventilated patients. The mortality associated with VAP is high. The organisms associated with VAP and their resistance pattern varies depending on the patient group and hospital setting. The diagnostic methods available for VAP are not universal; however, a proper infection control policy with appropriate antibiotic usage can reduce the mortality rate among ventilated patients.