The anesthesia-related cardiac arrest (CA) rate is a quality indicator to improve patient safety in the perioperative period. A systematic review with meta-analysis of the worldwide literature related to anesthesia-related CA rate has not yet been performed.This study aimed to analyze global data on anesthesia-related and perioperative CA rates according to country's Human Development Index (HDI) and by time. In addition, we compared the anesthesia-related and perioperative CA rates in low- and high-income countries in 2 time periods.A systematic review was performed using electronic databases to identify studies in which patients underwent anesthesia with anesthesia-related and/or perioperative CA rates.
Both anesthesia-related and perioperative CA rates decrease with increasing HDI but not with time. There is a clear and consistent reduction in anesthesia-related and perioperative CA rates in high-HDI countries, but an increase inperioperative CA rates without significant alteration in the anesthesia-related CA rates in low-HDI countries comparing the 2 time periods.