INTRODUCTION: Complications from HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelet) syndrome may present as an emergency to any surgeon. We review the ten-year experience of a tertiary hepatobiliary centre managing HELLP patients. Three selected cases are described to highlight our management strategy and a systematic review of the recent literature is presented. METHODS: All patients with HELLP syndrome were identified from a prospectively maintained database and their details collated. Subsequently, a detailed search of PubMed was carried out to identify all case series of HELLP syndrome in the literature in the English language since 1999. RESULTS: On review of 1,002 cases, 10 patients were identified with surgical complications of HELLP syndrome. Seven of these patients had a significant liver injury. Only three of these required surgical intervention for liver injury although four other patients required surgical intervention for other complications. There was no maternal mortality in this series. Review of the literature identified 49 cases in 31 publications. The management approaches of these patients were compared with ours. CONCLUSIONS: We have presented a large series of patients with surgical complications resulting from HELLP syndrome managed without maternal mortality. This review has confirmed that haemodynamically stable patients with HELLP syndrome associated hepatic rupture can be conservatively treated successfully. However, in unstable patients, perihepatic packing and transfer to a specialist liver unit is recommended.
J Pregnancy. 2014;2014:910751. doi: 10.1155/2014/910751. Epub 2014 Jun 2.
Both preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome have their origin in the placenta. The aim of this study is to review genetic factors involved in development of preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome using literature search in PubMed. A familial cohort links chromosomes 2q, 5q, and 13q to preeclampsia. The chromosome 12q is coupled with the HELLP syndrome. The STOX1 gene, the ERAP1 and 2 genes, the syncytin envelope gene, and the -670 Fas receptor polymorphisms are involved in the development of preeclampsia. The ACVR2A gene on chromosome 2q22 is also implicated. The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and factor V Leiden mutation participate both in development of preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. Carriers of the TT and the CC genotype of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism seem to have an increased risk of the HELLP syndrome. The placental levels of VEGF mRNA are reduced both in women with preeclampsia and in women with the HELLP syndrome. The BclI polymorphism is engaged in development of the HELLP syndrome but not in development of severe preeclampsia. The ACE I/D polymorphism affects uteroplacental and umbilical artery blood flows in women with preeclampsia. In women with preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome several genes in the placenta are deregulated. Preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome are multiplex genetic diseases.
BACKGROUND Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is a severe condition of pregnancy that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Corticoteroid (CORT) therapy is common in the management of HELLP syndrome. This study evaluates the efficacy of CORT therapy to patients with HELLP Syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature search was carried out in multiple electronic databases. Meta-analyses of means difference and odds ratio were carried under the random-effects model. RESULTS Fifteen studies (675 CORT treated and 787 control HELLP patients) were included. CORT treatment significantly improved platelet count (mean difference between CORT treated and controls in changes from baseline, MD: 38.08 [15.71, 60.45]×109; p=0.0009), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (MD: -440 [-760, -120] IU/L; p=0.007), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (MD: -143.34 [-278.69, -7.99] IU/L; p=0.04) but the decrease in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was not statistically significant (MD: -48.50 [-114.32, 17.32] IU/L; p=0.15). Corticosteroid treatment was also associated with significantly less blood transfusion rate (odds ratio, OR: 0.42 [0.24, 0.76]; p=0.004) and hospital/ICU stay (MD: -1.79 [-3.54, -0.05] days; p=0.04). Maternal mortality (OR: 1.27 [0.45, 3.60]; p=0.65), birth weight (MD: 0.09 [-0.11, 0.28]; p=0.38) and the prevalence of morbid conditions (OR: 0.79 [0.58, 1.08]; p=0.14) did not differ significantly between both groups. CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroid administration to HELLP patients improves platelet count, and the serum levels of LDH and ALT, and reduces hospital/ICU stay and blood transfusion rate, but is not significantly associated with better maternal mortality and overall morbidity.