BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication of labour. Several options for preventing PPH are available, but further advances in this field are important, especially the identification of safe, easy to use and cost-effective regimens. Tranexamic acid (TA), which is an antifibrinolytic agent that is used widely to prevent and treat haemorrhage, merits evaluation to assess whether it meets these criteria.OBJECTIVES:
To determine, from the best available evidence, whether TA is effective and safe for preventing PPH in comparison to placebo or no treatment (with or without uterotonic co-treatment), or to uterotonic agents.SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies.SELECTION CRITERIA: All published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of TA alone or in addition to uterotonics in the third stage of labour or during caesarean section (CS) to prevent PPH.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed for inclusion all the potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. We entered the data into Review Manager software and checked for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: Twelve trials involving 3285 healthy women at low risk of excessive bleeding undergoing elective CS (nine trials, 2453 participants) or spontaneous birth (three trials, 832 participants) satisfied inclusion criteria and contributed data to the analysis. All participants received routine prophylactic uterotonics in accordance with the local guideline in addition to TA or placebo or no intervention. Overall, included studies had moderate risk of bias for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, selective reporting and low risk of bias for incomplete data. The quality of evidence was also as assessed using GRADE.Blood loss greater than 400 mL or 500 mL, and more than 1000 mL was less common in women who received TA versus placebo or no intervention (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 0.63, six trials, 1398 women; moderate quality evidence) and (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.71, six trials, 2093 women; moderate quality evidence), respectively. TA was effective in decreasing the incidence of blood loss greater than 1000 mL in women who had undergone CS (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23, 0.78, four trials, 1534 women), but not vaginal birth (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06, 1.36, two trials 559 women). The effect of TA on blood loss greater than 500 mL or 400 mL was more pronounced in the group of women having vaginal birth than in women who had CS. Mean blood loss (from delivery until two hours postpartum) was lower in women who received TA versus placebo or no intervention (mean difference MD - 77.79 mL, 95% CI -97.95, -57.64, five trials, 1186 women) and this effect was similar following vaginal birth and CS.Additional medical interventions (moderate quality evidence) and blood transfusions were less frequent in women receiving TA versus placebo or no interventions. Mild side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness were more common with the use of TA (moderate quality evidence). The effect of TA on maternal mortality, severe morbidity and thromboembolic events is uncertain (low quality evidence).AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: TA (in addition to uterotonic medications) decreases postpartum blood loss and prevents PPH and blood transfusions following vaginal birth and CS in women at low risk of PPH based on studies of mixed quality. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about serious side effects, but there is an increase in the incidence of minor side effects with the use of TA. Effects of TA on thromboembolic events and mortality as well as its use in high-risk women should be investigated further.
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality, accounting for one quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. Estimates of its incidence in the literature vary widely, from 3 % to 15 % of deliveries. Uterotonics after birth are the only intervention that has been shown to be effective in preventing PPH. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has been investigated as a potentially useful complement to uterotonics for prevention because it has been proved to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding in trauma patients, and menstrual blood loss. Randomized controlled trials for PPH prevention after cesarean (n = 10) and vaginal (n = 2) deliveries show that women who received TXA had significantly less postpartum blood loss without any increase in their rate of severe adverse effects. However, the quality of these trials was poor and they were not designed to test the effect of TXA on the reduction of PPH incidence. Large, adequately powered, multicenter randomized controlled trials are required before the widespread use of TXA to prevent PPH can be recommended. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial will be performed. It will involve 4000 women in labor for a planned vaginal singleton delivery, at a term ≥ 35 weeks. Treatment (either TXA 1 g or placebo) will be administered intravenously just after birth. Prophylactic oxytocin will be administered to all women. The primary outcome will be the incidence of PPH, defined by blood loss ≥500 mL, measured with a graduated collector bag. This study will have 80 % power to show a 30 % reduction in the incidence of PPH, from 10.0 % to 7.0 %. DISCUSSION: In addition to prophylactic uterotonic administration, a complementary component of the management of third stage of labor acting on the coagulation process may be useful in preventing PPH. TXA is a promising candidate drug, inexpensive, easy to administer, and simple to add to the routine management of deliveries in hospitals. This large, adequately powered, multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled trial seeks to determine if the risk-benefit ratio favors the routine use of TXA after delivery to prevent PPH.