La anestesia tópica de la vía aérea es mandatoria para realizar la intubación con paciente despierto y por lo general se lleva a cabo con lidocaína tópica en aerosol, sin vasoconstrictores. El propósito principal de esta "topicalización" es tener un paciente que tolere el uso de un dispositivo para la vía oral que facilite la intubación traqueal. La intubación nasal requiere topicalización adicional de las vías nasales en combinación con un vasoconstrictor. La mayoría de los anestesiólogos usan sedación cuidadosa cuando se lleva a cabo intubación con paciente despierto.
Topical anesthesia of the airway is a required to perform awake intubation and is typically accomplished with topical lidocaine in spray, without vasoconstrictors. The main purpose of this "topicalization" is to have a patient accepting the use of an oral airway used to facilitate awake oral intubation. Nasal intubation requires additional topicalization of the nasal ways in combination with a vasoconstrictor. Most anesthesiologist use cautious sedation when awake intubation is carried out.
Intubación con paciente despierto usando el laringoscopio (Pentax airway scope) en 30 pacientes.
Awake tracheal intubation using Pentax airway scope in 30 patients: A Case series.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pentax airway scope (AWS) has been successfully used for managing difficult intubations. In this case series, we aimed to evaluate the success rate and time taken to complete intubation, when AWS was used for awake tracheal intubation. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the use of AWS for awake tracheal intubation in 30 patients. Indication for awake intubation, intubation time, total time to complete tracheal intubation, laryngoscopic view (Cormack and Lehane grade), total dose of local anaesthetic used, anaesthetists rating and patient's tolerance of the procedure were recorded. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 25 out of the 30 patients (83%). The mean (standard deviation) intubation time and total time to complete the tracheal intubation was 5.4 (2.4) and 13.9 (3.7) min, respectively in successful cases. The laryngeal view was grade 1 in 24 and grade 2 in one of 25 successful intubations. In three out of the five patients where the AWS failed, awake tracheal intubation was successfully completed with the assistance of flexible fibre optic scope (FOS). CONCLUSION: Awake tracheal intubation using AWS was successful in 83% of patients. Success rate can be further improved using a combination of AWS and FOS. Anaesthesiologists who do not routinely use FOS may find AWS easier to use for awake tracheal intubation using an oral route.
Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can't intubate, can't ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased.
Anesth Analg. 2008 Apr;106(4):1215-7, table of contents. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318167cc7c.
Traditionally, an awake intubation is performed by flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy. However, many new devices have been developed to assist anesthesiologists with both routine and difficult airway management, one of which is the Bonfils Retromolar Intubation Fiberscope. This device may be more beneficial than the flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope since it can readily navigate through soft tissue and physically lift airway structures, is more affordable, durable, and easier to clean. This case series demonstrates successful use of the Bonfils Scope in five patients for awake orotracheal intubation with anticipated difficult airways.
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), or Stone man syndrome, is rare and one of the most disabling genetic conditions of the connective tissue due to progressive extraskeletal ossification. It usually presents in the first decade of life as painful inflammatory swellings, either spontaneously or in response to trauma, which later ossify and lead to severe disability. Progressive spinal deformity including thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis leads to thoracic insufficiency syndrome, increasing the risk for pneumonia and right sided heart failure. We present the airway management in a 22-year-old male, diagnosed with FOP with severe disability, who required urgent airway intervention as a result of respiratory failure from pnuemonia. Tracheostomy triggers ossification and consequent airway obstruction at the tracheostomy site and laryngoscopy triggers temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Therefore, awake fiber-optic endotracheal intubation is recommended in these patients. Use of an airway endoscopy mask enabled us to simultaneously maintain non-invasive ventilation and intubate the patient in a situation where tracheostomy needed to be avoided.
Dexmedetomidina para intubación con paciente despierto en una parturienta con síndrome de Klippel-Feil y malformación de Arnold Chiari tipo I
Dexmedetomidine for an awake fiber-optic intubation of a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, Type I Arnold Chiari malformation and status post released tethered spinal cord presenting for repeat cesarean section.
Patients with Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) have congenital fusion of their cervical vertebrae due to a failure in the normal segmentation of the cervical vertebrae during the early weeks of gestation and also have myriad of other associated anomalies. Because of limited neck mobility, airway management in these patients can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. We describe a unique case in which a dexmedetomidine infusion was used as sedation for an awake fiber-optic intubation in a parturient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome, who presented for elective cesarean delivery. A 36-year-old female, G2P1A0 with KFS (fusion of cervical vertebrae) who had prior cesarean section for breech presentation with difficult airway management was scheduled for repeat cesarean delivery. After obtaining an informed consent, patient was taken in the operating room and non-invasive monitors were applied. Dexmedetomidine infusion was started and after adequate sedation, an awake fiber-optic intubation was performed. General anesthetic was administered after intubation and dexmedetomidine infusion was continued on maintenance dose until extubation. Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is a rare congenital disorder for which the true incidence is unknown, which makes it even rare to see a parturient with this disease. Patients with KFS usually have other congenital abnormalities as well, sometimes including the whole thoraco-lumbar spine (Type III) precluding the use of neuraxial anesthesia for these patients. Obstetric patients with KFS can present unique challenges in administering anesthesia and analgesia, primarily as it relates to the airway and dexmedetomidine infusion has shown promising result to manage the airway through awake fiberoptic intubation without any adverse effects on mother and fetus.