viernes, 19 de junio de 2015

CPPD/PDPH / Cefalea postpunción dural

Cefalea postpunción dural
Post-dural puncture headache.
Ghaleb A, Khorasani A, Mangar D.
Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:45-51. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S17834. Epub 2012 Jan 12.
Abstract
Since August Bier reported the first case in 1898, post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) has been a problem for patients following dural puncture. Clinical and laboratory research over the last 30 years has shown that use of smaller-gauge needles, particularly of the pencil-point design, are associated with a lower risk of PDPH than traditional cutting point needle tips (Quincke-point needle). A careful history can rule out other causes of headache. A postural component of headache is the sine qua non of PDPH. In high-risk patients < 50 years, post-partum, in the event a large-gauge needle puncture is initiated, an epidural blood patch should be performed within 24-48 hours of dural puncture. The optimum volume of blood has been shown to be 12-20 mL for adult patients. Complications caused by autologous epidural blood patching (AEBP) are rare.
KEYWORDS: cause; gauge; incidence; needles; post-dural puncture headache; risk
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Medicamentos para prevenir la cefalea postpunción dural
Drug therapy for preventing post-dural puncture headache.
Basurto Ona X1, Uriona Tuma SM, Martínez García L, Solà I, Bonfill Cosp X.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;2:CD001792. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001792.pub3.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Post-dural (post-lumbar or post-spinal) puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most common complications of diagnostic, therapeutic or inadvertent lumbar punctures. Many drug options have been used to prevent headache in clinical practice and have also been tested in some clinical studies, but there are still some uncertainties about their clinical effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of drugs for preventing PDPH in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: The search strategy included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 5), MEDLINE (from 1950 to May 2012), EMBASE (from 1980 to May 2012) and CINAHL (from 1982 to June 2012). There was no language restriction. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effectiveness of any drug used for preventing PDPH. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors independently selected studies, assessed risks of bias and extracted data. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. We calculated a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each RR and MD. We did not undertake meta-analysis because participants' characteristics or assessed doses of drugs were too different in the included studies. We performed an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 RCTs (1611 participants) in this review with a majority of women (72%), mostly parturients (women in labour) (913), after a lumbar puncture for regional anaesthesia. Drugs assessed were epidural and spinal morphine, spinal fentanyl, oral caffeine, rectal indomethacin, intravenous cosyntropin, intravenous aminophylline and intravenous dexamethasone.All the included RCTs reported data on the primary outcome, i.e. the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture. Epidural morphine and intravenous cosyntropin reduced the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture when compared to placebo. Also, intravenous aminophylline reduced the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture when compared to no intervention, while intravenous dexamethasone increased it. Spinal morphine increased the number of participants affected by pruritus when compared to placebo, and epidural morphine increased the number of participants affected by nausea and vomiting when compared to placebo. Oral caffeine increased the number of participants affected by insomnia when compared to placebo.The remainder of the interventions analysed did not show any relevant effect for any of the outcomes.None of the included RCTs reported the number of days that patients stayed in hospital.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Morphine and cosyntropin have shown effectiveness for reducing the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture, when compared to placebo, especially in patients with high risk of PDPH, such as obstetric patients who have had an inadvertent dural puncture. Aminophylline also reduced the number of participants affected by PDPH of any severity after a lumbar puncture when compared to no intervention in patients undergoing elective caesarean section. Dexamethasone increased the risk of PDPH, after spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section, when compared to placebo. Morphine also increased the number of participants affected by adverse events (pruritus and nausea and vomiting)There is a lack of conclusive evidence for the other drugs assessed (fentanyl, caffeine, indomethacin and dexamethasone).These conclusions should be interpreted with caution, owing to the lack of information, to allow correct appraisal of risk of bias and the small sample sizes of studies.
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Comparando el efecto de pregabalina, gabapentina y acetaminofen en la cefalea postpunción dural
Comparing the effect of pregabalin, gabapentin, and acetaminophen on post-dural puncture headache.
Mahoori A, Noroozinia H, Hasani E, Saghaleini H.
Saudi J Anaesth. 2014 Jul;8(3):374-7. doi: 10.4103/1658-354X.136436.
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of lumbar puncture for any purpose. To avoid the need for invasive methods of treating PDPH such as blood patch, the search for novel pharmacological agents to manage PDPH continues. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acetaminophen, gabapentin and pregabalin in controlling PDPH in patients who underwent surgery under spinal anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 patients who underwent elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia and suffered from PDPH consequently were enrolled in this randomized trial. Patients were categorized randomly into three groups. Group A, B and C have received Acetaminophen, Gabapentin and Pregabalin (3 times a day for 3 days), respectively. The effect of medications on the severity of PDPH was evaluated and compared using visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS:
The mean VAS score was significantly lower in pregabalin group compared with others 24, 48 and 72 h after the onset of headache (P = 0.001 for all of them) and lower in Gabapentin group compared with Acetaminophen group 24, 48 and 72 h after the onset of headache (P = 0.001 for all analyses). No adverse outcome was reported in groups. CONCLUSION: Pregabalin and gabapentin are both useful and safe in management of PDPH, but pregabalin is more effective in this regard.
KEYWORDS: Acetaminophen; gabapentin; post-dural puncture headache; pregabalin
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