domingo, 10 de noviembre de 2013

Embarazo de alto riesgo

Anestesia en una parturienta con transplante renal

Anesthesia for parturient with renal transplantation.
Parikh BK, Shah VR, Bhosale G.
Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Oct;28(4): 524-7.
Management of successful pregnancy after renal transplantation is a unique challenge to nephrologist, obstetrician, and anesthesiologist, as these patients have altered physiology and are immune-compromised. We present the anesthetic management of three postrenal transplant patients scheduled for cesarean section. While conducting such cases, cardiovascular status, hematological status, and function of transplanted kidney should be assessed thoroughly. Side effects of immunosuppressant drugs and their interaction with anesthetic agents should be taken into consideration. Main goal of anesthetic management is to maintain optimum perfusion pressure of renal allograft to preserve its function.

Embarazo después de transplante de hígado: revisión de evolución y recomendaciones de manejo

Pregnancy following liver transplantation: review of outcomes and recommendations for management.
Parhar KS, Gibson PS, Coffin CS.
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
Can J Gastroenterol. 2012 Sep;26(9):621-6.
Liver transplantation is considered to be the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease and its success has led to an increase in the number of female liver transplant recipients who are of childbearing age. Several key issues that are noted when counselling patients who are consideringpregnancy following liver transplantation include the optimal timing of pregnancy, optimal contraception methods and the management of immunosuppression during pregnancy. The present review summarizes the most recent literature so that the clinician may address these issues with their patient and enable them to make informed decisions about pregnancy planning. The authors review recent studies examining maternal and fetal outcomes, and the rates of complications including risk of graft rejection. Subsequently, the authors provide recommendations for counselling prospective mothers and the management of the pregnant liver transplant recipient.

Cardiomiopatía periparto: revisión de la literatura
Peripartum cardiomyopathy: review of the literature.
Bhakta P, Biswas BK, Banerjee B.
Department of Anesthesiology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital South, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Yonsei Med J. 2007 Oct 31;48(5):731-47.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare but serious form of cardiac failure affecting women in the last months of pregnancy or early puerperium. Clinical presentation of PPCM is similar to that of systolic heart failure from any cause, and it can sometimes be complicated by a high incidence of thromboembolism. Prior to the availability of echocardiography, diagnosis was based only on clinical findings. Recently, inclusion of echocardiography has made diagnosis of PPCM easier and more accurate. Its etiopathogenesis is still poorly understood, but recent evidence supports inflammation, viral infection and autoimmunity as the leading causative hypotheses. Prompt recognition with institution of intensive treatment by a multidisciplinary team is a prerequisite for improved outcome. Conventional treatment consists of diuretics, beta blockers, vasodilators, and sometimes digoxin and anticoagulants, usually in combination. In resistant cases, newer therapeutic modalities such as immunomodulation, immunoglobulin and immunosuppression may be considered. Cardiac transplantation may be necessary in patients not responding to conventional and newer therapeutic strategies. The role of the anesthesiologist is important in perioperative and intensive care management. Prognosis is highly related to reversal of ventricular dysfunction. Compared to historically higher mortality rates, recent reports describe better outcome, probably because of advances in medical care. Based on current information, future pregnancy is usually not recommended in patients who fail to recover heart function. This article aims to provide a comprehensive updated review of PPCM covering etiopathogeneses, clinical presentation and diagnosis, as well as pharmacological, perioperative and intensive care management and prognosis, while stressing areas that require further research.

Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor
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