lunes, 8 de junio de 2015

Geriatría / Geriatrics

De la investigación a la realidad: Minimizando los efectos de la hospitalización en adultos viejos
From research to reality: minimizing the effects of hospitalization on older adults.
Admi H1, Shadmi E2, Baruch H1, Zisberg A2.
Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2015 Apr 29;6(2):e0017. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10201. eCollection 2015.
Abstract
This review examines ways to decrease preventable effects of hospitalization on older adults in acute care medical (non-geriatric) units, with a focus on the Israeli experience at the Rambam Health Care Campus, a large tertiary care hospital in northern Israel. Hospitalization of older adults is often followed by an irreversible decline in functional status affecting their quality of life and well-being after discharge. Functional decline is often related to avoidable effects of in-hospital procedures not caused by the patient's acute disease. In this article we review the literature relating to the recognized effects of hospitalization on older adults, pre-hospitalization risk factors, and intervention models for hospitalized older adults. In addition, this article describes an Israeli comprehensive research study, the Hospitalization Process Effects on Functional Outcomes and Recovery (HoPE-FOR), and outlines the design of a combined intervention model being implemented at the Rambam Health Care Campus. The majority of the reviewed studies identified preadmission personal risk factors and psychosocial risk factors. In-hospital restricted mobility, under-nutrition care, over-use of continence devices, polypharmacy, and environmental factors were also identified as avoidable processes. Israeli research supported the findings that preadmission risk factors together with in-hospital processes account for functional decline. Different models of care have been developed to maintain functional status. Much can be achieved by interdisciplinary teams oriented to the needs of hospitalized elderly in making an impact on hospital processes and continuity of care. It is the responsibility of health care policy-makers, managers, clinicians, and researchers to pursue effective interventions to reduce preventable hospitalization-associated disability.
KEYWORDS: Functional decline; geriatric nursing; hospitalization; older adults
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Polifarmacia en el anciano
Polypharmacy in the elderly.
Golchin N, Frank SH, Vince A, Isham L, Meropol SB.
J Res Pharm Pract. 2015 Apr-Jun;4(2):85-8. doi: 10.4103/2279-042X.155755.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:The objective was to assess the frequency of polypharmacy and potential complications among local seniors. METHODS: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 59 adults aged above 65 years was interviewed at Cuyahoga county (U.S. state of Ohio) senior programs. Polypharmacy was defined as more than five prescribed medications. Primary outcomes were frequent missed doses, one or more duplicate drug/s, and equal or more than one contraindicated drug combinations. FINDINGS: Among seniors with the mean age of 76.9 years (25.4% male), 40.6% used multiple pharmacies and 35.6% had polypharmacy. Of all seniors with polypharmacy, about 57% had contraindicated drug combinations. Polypharmacy was associated with duplication (P = 0.02), but not frequent missed doses (P = 0.20). CONCLUSION: As shown by this study, polypharmacy was associated with duplicated therapy and contraindicated drug combinations. Improved communications among seniors, physicians, and pharmacists is necessary to minimize adverse consequences of polypharmacy.
KEYWORDS: Elderly; drug adherence; polypharmacy
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La posibilidad de utilizar una Lista de Medicamentos Universal (UMS) para mejorar la adherencia en pacientes que toman múltiples medicamentos en el Reino Unido: Una evaluación cualitativa.
The potential for using a Universal Medication Schedule (UMS) to improve adherence in patients taking multiple medications in the UK: a qualitative evaluation.
Kenning C, Protheroe J, Gray N, Ashcroft D, Bower P.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 Mar 11;15:94. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-0749-8.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to prescribed medication has major consequences. Managing multiple long-term conditions often involvespolypharmacy, potentially increasing complexity and the possibility of poor adherence. As a result of the globally recognised problems in supporting adherence to medication, some researchers have proposed the use of reminder charts. The main aim of the research was to explore the need for and perceptions around the 'Universal Medication Schedule' (UMS). Looking at ways in which pharmacists and General Practitioners (GPs) could use the UMS in NHS settings. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 10 GPs, 10 community pharmacists and 15 patients. Patients were aged 65 years and over, had multiple long-term conditions and were prescribed at least 5 medications. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and thematic analysis was conducted, using a framework approach to manage the data. RESULTS: Attitudes towards the UMS were mixed with stakeholders seeing benefits and limitations to the chart. Practitioners proposed a number of existing services where they thought the UMS could easily be integrated but there was evidence of role conflict with GPs feeling it may be best placed with pharmacists and vice versa. The potential for the UMS to be used as a tool to aid communication between the different services involved in a patient's care was a key theme. CONCLUSIONS: The UMS chart provides consolidated medicines information that might help to improve patients' knowledge and health literacy, which may or may not improve adherence but could help patients in making informed decisions about their treatment. One of the key benefits of using the UMS in practice is that it could be introduced across services. In this way it may aid in medicines reconciliation between healthcare settings to ensure continuity of message, improve patient experience and create more joined up working between services. Further research is needed to test implementation in different services and to assess outcomes on patient understanding and adherence.
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