jueves, 24 de julio de 2014

Miocardiopatía y cáncer / cardiomyopathy and cancer

Tratamiento de la cardiomiopatía inducida por quimioterapia

Management of chemotherapy induced cardiomyopathy.
Saidi A, Alharethi R.
Curr Cardiol Rev. 2011 Nov;7(4):245-9.
Chemotherapy related cardiac dysfunction (CRCD) is a serious complication of anticancer therapy. CRCD can be classified into two types. Type I CRCD is exemplified by anthracyline- induced cardiac dysfunction and type II CRCD is exemplified by trastuzumab- induced cardiac dysfunction. The mechanism of cardiac toxicity in both types is not well defined. Certain risk factors may play a role in developing the cardiac injury, most importantly, the cumulative dose when dealing with anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity. Establishing an early diagnosis and initiating early treatment may be an important step in preventing irreversible cardiac injury especially in type I CRCD. Currently there are no guidelines developed specifically for the treatment of chemotherapy induced cardiomyopathy (CIC), however a few small studies support the use of neurohormonal antagonists in the treatment and prevention of CIC. Large multi- centers trials are needed to establish guidelines for CIC. Until then, we advocate following the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) guidelines. Additionally, a close collaboration between the patient's cardiologist and oncologist is strongly recommended in order to establish a long term plan for the patient.

La prevención de enfermedad cardiovascular en sobrevivientes de cáncer

The prevention of cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors.
Daher IN, Daigle TR, Bhatia N, Durand JB.
Tex Heart Inst J. 2012;39(2):190-8.
The number of cancer survivors in the United States has exceeded 12 million and is increasing. After secondary malignancies, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of late morbidity and death among cancer survivors. The cardiovascular needs of cancer survivors have not been described. We describe the clinical characteristics of 53 patients seen during the first year of our Cardiovascular Prevention in Cancer Survivors clinic. The mean age of the patients was 40.1 ± 13.7 years. The mean survival since cancer diagnosis was 13.9 years. A history of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathywas present in 21%, and 5.7% had known atherosclerotic disease. One fourth had hypertension; 32.1%, dyslipidemia; and 13%, diabetes mellitus. Three quarters had received anthracycline chemotherapy, while half had received radiation. Half had an abnormal echocardiogram (55%), and 11 of 18 had an abnormal carotid ultrasonogram. The mean Framingham risk score for patients older than 30 years (n=37) was 8.4, yielding a 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease of 7.6%. The mean vascular age was 54.3 years, and the mean chronological age was 46.3 years. The mean follow-up duration was 566 ± 213 days. There were significant improvements in serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein levels, as well as trends toward improved blood pressure control. Cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in cancer survivors. There is an immediate need for the widespread availability of cardiovascular preventive services to reduce the late adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Early intervention might help to improve the cardiovascular risk profile.
KEYWORDS: Anthracyclines/adverse effects; antineoplastic agents/adverse effects; atherosclerosis; calcinosis/etiology; cancer;cardiomyopathies/etiology/prevention & control; cardiotoxins; cardiovascular diseases/chemically induced/prevention & control; carotid artery diseases; disease progression; heart failure/etiology; heart/drug effects; heart/radiation effects; monitoring, physiologic; radiation injuries; risk factors; survivorship


Cardiomiopatía inducida por quimioterapia: patogénesis, monitoreo y manejo 

Chemotherapy induced cardiomyopathy: pathogenesis, monitoring and management.
Shakir DK, Rasul KI.
J Clin Med Res. 2009 Apr;1(1):8-12. doi: 10.4021/jocmr2009.02.1225. Epub 2009 Mar 24.
The survival rate of cancer patients has greatly increased over the last 20 years. However, to achieve this result, a considerable price has been paid in terms of the side effects associated with the intensive anticancer treatment. The most common adverse effect is cardiotoxicity which may compromise the clinical effectiveness of chemotherapy, affecting the patient's survival and quality of life independently of the oncological prognosis. There are 2 types of cardiac toxicities, type I which is more serious and result in permanent damage to the myocardium and type II which is usually reversible. Chemotherapies varies in their incidence of inducing cardiomyopathy, and the onset which may occur acutely (during or shortly after treatment), sub-acutely (within days or weeks after completion of chemotherapy) or chronically (weeks to months after drug administration). Cardiac events associated with chemotherapy may consist of mild blood pressure changes, thrombosis, Electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, arrhythmias, myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, cardiac failure (left ventricular failure), and congestive heart failure (CHF). The risk for such effects depends upon: cumulative dose, rate of drug administration, mediastinal radiation, advanced age, younger age, female gender, pre-existing heart disease and hypertension. Serial measurements of LVEF and fractional shortening are the most common indices monitored to assess left ventricular systolic function and cardiotoxicity. This can be achieved by 2-dimensional, M-mode and color Doppler echocardiographic examination; also Cardiac troponins as a biological marker for myocardial damage can be used for monitoring in patients received anthracyclines. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to slow the progression of left ventricular dysfunction in several different clinical settings, including anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. Carvedilol and probably with anti-oxidants like Probucol and vitamin E benefits also.


Anestesiología y Medicina del Dolor

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